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Human Anatomy. Anatomical Terms. Definitions. Anatomy – Deals with the structure of body parts – their forms and relationships . Physiology – Deals with the functions of body parts – what they do and how they do it.

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human anatomy

Human Anatomy

Anatomical Terms

definitions
Definitions
  • Anatomy – Deals with the structure of body parts – their forms and relationships.
  • Physiology – Deals with the functions of body parts – what they do and how they do it.
  • Dissection – The careful cutting apart of body parts to see their relationships.
anatomical terminology
Anatomical Terminology
  • Body Positions
  • Regional Names
  • Directional Terms
  • Planes and Sections
  • Body Cavities
body positions
Body Positions
  • Anatomical Position
    • The subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
  • Prone – body lying face down.
  • Supine – body lying face up.
regional names
Regional Names
  • Regions can be identified externally.
  • Principal regions:
    • Head (cephalic)
    • Neck (cervical)
    • Trunk
    • Upper limb
    • Lower limb
directional terms
Directional Terms
  • Superior (cephalic or cranial) and inferior (caudal).
  • Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal).
  • Medial and lateral.
directional terms1
Directional Terms
  • Intermediate
  • Ipsilateral and contralateral.
  • Proximal and distal.
  • Superficial and deep.
planes and sections
Planes and Sections
  • Sagittal Plane – vertical plane – divides body into right and left.
  • Midsaggital or median plane – equal parts
  • Parasaggital plane – unequal parts
planes and sections1
Planes and Sections
  • Frontal or coronal – divides body into anterior and posterior parts
  • Transverse plane – divides body into superior and inferior parts
  • Oblique plane – angle
  • Section – one flat surface or a 3-D structure
body cavities
Body Cavities
  • Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs.
  • Two major cavities are the dorsal and ventral body cavities.
dorsal body cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity
  • Located near the dorsal (posterior) surface of the body.
  • Subdividions
    • Cranial cavity
    • Vertebral (spinal) canal
  • Meninges
ventral body cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
  • Located near the ventral (anterior) aspect of the body.
  • Subdivisions
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
  • Diaphragm
  • Viscera
thoracic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
  • Subdivisions
    • Pericardial Cavity
    • Pleural cavities
    • mediastinum
abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic cavity
  • Subdivisions
    • Abdominal Cavity
    • Pelvic Cavity
thoracic and abdominal cavity membranes
Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes
  • Serous membrane
  • Pleura
  • Pericardium
  • Peritoneum
abdominopelvic regions and quadrants
Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
  • The nine-region designation is used for anatomical studies, whereas the quadrant designation is used to locate the site of pain, tumor, or some other abnormality.
abdominopelvic regions
Abdominopelvic Regions
  • Right Hypochondriac Region
  • Epigastric Region
  • Left Hypochondriac Region
  • Right Lumbar Region
  • Umbilical Region
  • Left Lumbar Region
  • Right Inguinal (Iliac) Region
  • Hypogastric (Pubic Region)
  • Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
  • Subcostal line, transtubercular line, midclavicular lines
abdominopelvic quadrants
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
  • Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
  • Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
  • Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
  • Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
  • Horizontal lines passes through umbilicus
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