Artificial Intelligence Lecture No. 13 . Dr. Asad Ali Safi Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) Islamabad, Pakistan. Summary of Previous Lecture. Organizing the Knowledge Knowledge Representation using Frames
Dr. Asad Ali Safi
Department of Computer Science,
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) Islamabad, Pakistan.
In computer science, a rule-based system is a set of "if-then" statements that uses a set of assertions, to which rules on how to act upon those assertions are created.
The human mental process is internal, and it is too complex to be represented as an algorithm. However, most experts are capable of expressing their knowledge in the form of rules for problem solving.
IF the ‘traffic light’ is green
THEN the action is go
IF the ‘traffic light’ is red
THEN the action is stop
A rule can have multiple antecedents joined by the keywords AND (conjunction), OR (disjunction) or a combination of both.IF <antecedent 1>AND <antecedent 2>
IF <antecedent>THEN <consequent>
IF <antecedent 1>
OR <antecedent 2>
. . . . . .
AND <antecedent n> THEN <consequent>
OR < antecedent n>
THEN < consequent>
The antecedent of a rule incorporates two parts: an object (linguistic object) and its value. The object and its value are linked by an operator.
Systems can also use mathematical operators to define an object as numerical and assign it to the numerical value.
IF ‘age of the customer’ < 18
Rules can represent relations, recommendations, directives, strategies and heuristics:
Directive IF the car is dead AND the ‘fuel tank’ is empty THEN the action is ‘refuel the car’
Strategy IF the car is dead THEN the action is ‘check the fuel tank’; step1 is complete
IF step1 is complete
AND the ‘fuel tank’ is full
THEN the action is ‘check the battery’; step2 is complete
This is not a problem if the rules map easily to a decision tree, but in that case the knowledge is really procedural.
However, as with the using procedures, the database approach is limited in that it only works for very clean sorts of logical relationships.
If the problem with coding logical knowledge is that the nature of a computer is not well-suited to expressing logical relationships, then clearly the answer is to create a machine that is. Building specialized hardware is not very practical, but it turns out a computer is a good tool for creating virtual computers.
Why is a computer good at building a rule engine, but not the rules themselves? It is because behaviour of a rule engine can be expressed in a procedural algorithm, along the lines of:
The media too, was very excited about the idea of Artificial Intelligence and expert systems, and the software industry went through a cycle of tremendous hype about AI, followed by disillusionment as the technology simply couldn\'t live up to the hype.