The downfall of classical physics
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The Downfall of Classical Physics. Niels Bohr – Quantum Mechanics. Niels Bohr applies Quantum Mechanics to Rutherford’s model and proposes that electrons are located around the nucleus in energy levels. . The Rise of Quantum Physics.

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The Downfall of Classical Physics

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The downfall of classical physics

The Downfall of Classical Physics


Niels bohr quantum mechanics

Niels Bohr – Quantum Mechanics

Niels Bohr applies Quantum Mechanics to Rutherford’s model and proposes that electrons are located around the nucleus in energy levels.


The rise of quantum physics

The Rise of Quantum Physics

Spectral lines can be explained by the movement of electrons from one energy level to another.


Energy level n

ENERGY LEVEL (n)

  • “Rings” of Bohr’s planetary model

  • 7 possible energy levels

  • Maximum number of electrons in each energy level = 2n2

    • 1st level:

    • 2nd level:

    • 3rd level:

2

8

18


Energy sublevels

ENERGY SUBLEVELS

  • 4 types of sublevels:

    • s

    • p

    • d

    • f

  • Every energy level begets a new sublevel

    • Energy level 1: 1 sublevel (s)

    • Energy level 2: 2 sublevels (s, p)


Orbitals

ORBITALS

  • s sublevel = 1 s orbital

  • p sublevel = 3 p orbitals

  • d sublevel = 5 d orbitals

  • f sublevel = 7 f orbitals


Summary energy levels sublevels

Summary (energy levels, sublevels)


Summary sublevels orbitals electrons

Summary (sublevels, orbitals, electrons)


Magnetic spin

MAGNETIC SPIN

  • “Spin up”

  • “Spin down”


Summary energy levels sublevels1

Summary (energy levels, sublevels)


Summary sublevels orbitals electrons1

Summary (sublevels, orbitals, electrons)


Rules for electrons

RULES FOR ELECTRONS

  • An orbital can hold a maximum of TWO electrons

  • Pauli exclusion principle

  • Aufbauprinciple

  • Hund’s rule


Pauli exclusion principle

Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • no two electrons can have the same “address”

    • Energy level

    • Sublevel

    • Orbital

    • Spin


Aufbau principle

AufbauPrinciple

  • Electrons will fill the orbitals with the lowest amount of energybefore filling in orbitals that have more energy

  • Order is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p


Hund s rule

Hund’s Rule

  • Electrons will not share an orbital of the same energy if there is an empty orbital with that energy is available


Orbital diagrams

Orbital Diagrams

Orbital

Spin

1

s

Energy level

Sublevel


Draw an orbital diagram for carbon

Draw an orbital diagram for carbon:

1s

2s

2p


How to draw orbital diagrams

How to draw orbital diagrams

  • Use periodic table to figure out where to end (energy level and sublevel of last electron)

  • Draw boxes (orbitals) for all energy levels and sublevels up to the ending point

    • 1 box for s, 3 boxes for p, 5 boxes for d, 7 boxes for f

  • Fill boxes with electrons (2 per orbital) with opposite spins

  • Follow Hund’s rule when in the p, d, or f sublevels


Electron configurations

Electron configurations

  • Based on orbital diagrams

  • Use numbers and superscripts along with s, p, d and f to show location of electrons in atoms

    • Coefficient = energy level

    • Letter = sublevel

    • Superscript = # of electrons in sublevel


Example

Example:

Energy level2 electrons

1s2

sublevel


Write an electron configuration for nitrogen

Write an electron configuration for nitrogen:

1s

2s

2p

1s22s22p3


Practice

Practice

  • Draw the orbital diagram for oxygen

  • Write the electron configuration for oxygen

1s

2s

2p

1s22s22p4


Shortcuts

Shortcuts!!

  • Shortcut (shortened) Notation:

    • Use closest Noble Gas before the element

    • For bromine:

    • Closest Noble Gas before the element:

      • Argon:

    • Shortcut Notation:

1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p5

1s22s22p63s23p6

[Ar] 4s23d104p5b


What is the electron configuration of potassium

What is the electron configuration of potassium?

  • 1s22s22p63s23p63d1

  • 1s22s22p23s23p24s1

  • 1s22s22p63s23p3

  • 1s22s22p63s23p64s1


The downfall of classical physics

Each period number in the periodic table corresponds to _______A)an atomic massB)an energy level

C)an energy sublevelD)an atomic number


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