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The Downfall of Classical Physics. Niels Bohr – Quantum Mechanics. Niels Bohr applies Quantum Mechanics to Rutherford’s model and proposes that electrons are located around the nucleus in energy levels. . The Rise of Quantum Physics.

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Niels bohr quantum mechanics
Niels Bohr – Quantum Mechanics

Niels Bohr applies Quantum Mechanics to Rutherford’s model and proposes that electrons are located around the nucleus in energy levels.


The rise of quantum physics
The Rise of Quantum Physics

Spectral lines can be explained by the movement of electrons from one energy level to another.


Energy level n
ENERGY LEVEL (n)

  • “Rings” of Bohr’s planetary model

  • 7 possible energy levels

  • Maximum number of electrons in each energy level = 2n2

    • 1st level:

    • 2nd level:

    • 3rd level:

2

8

18


Energy sublevels
ENERGY SUBLEVELS

  • 4 types of sublevels:

    • s

    • p

    • d

    • f

  • Every energy level begets a new sublevel

    • Energy level 1: 1 sublevel (s)

    • Energy level 2: 2 sublevels (s, p)


Orbitals
ORBITALS

  • s sublevel = 1 s orbital

  • p sublevel = 3 p orbitals

  • d sublevel = 5 d orbitals

  • f sublevel = 7 f orbitals




Magnetic spin
MAGNETIC SPIN

  • “Spin up”

  • “Spin down”




Rules for electrons
RULES FOR ELECTRONS

  • An orbital can hold a maximum of TWO electrons

  • Pauli exclusion principle

  • Aufbauprinciple

  • Hund’s rule


Pauli exclusion principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • no two electrons can have the same “address”

    • Energy level

    • Sublevel

    • Orbital

    • Spin


Aufbau principle
AufbauPrinciple

  • Electrons will fill the orbitals with the lowest amount of energybefore filling in orbitals that have more energy

  • Order is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p


Hund s rule
Hund’s Rule

  • Electrons will not share an orbital of the same energy if there is an empty orbital with that energy is available


Orbital diagrams
Orbital Diagrams

Orbital

Spin

1

s

Energy level

Sublevel



How to draw orbital diagrams
How to draw orbital diagrams

  • Use periodic table to figure out where to end (energy level and sublevel of last electron)

  • Draw boxes (orbitals) for all energy levels and sublevels up to the ending point

    • 1 box for s, 3 boxes for p, 5 boxes for d, 7 boxes for f

  • Fill boxes with electrons (2 per orbital) with opposite spins

  • Follow Hund’s rule when in the p, d, or f sublevels


Electron configurations
Electron configurations

  • Based on orbital diagrams

  • Use numbers and superscripts along with s, p, d and f to show location of electrons in atoms

    • Coefficient = energy level

    • Letter = sublevel

    • Superscript = # of electrons in sublevel


Example
Example:

Energy level 2 electrons

1s2

sublevel



Practice
Practice

  • Draw the orbital diagram for oxygen

  • Write the electron configuration for oxygen

1s

2s

2p

1s22s22p4


Shortcuts
Shortcuts!!

  • Shortcut (shortened) Notation:

    • Use closest Noble Gas before the element

    • For bromine:

    • Closest Noble Gas before the element:

      • Argon:

    • Shortcut Notation:

1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p5

1s22s22p63s23p6

[Ar] 4s23d104p5b


What is the electron configuration of potassium
What is the electron configuration of potassium?

  • 1s22s22p63s23p63d1

  • 1s22s22p23s23p24s1

  • 1s22s22p63s23p3

  • 1s22s22p63s23p64s1


Each period number in the periodic table corresponds to _______ A) an atomic mass B) an energy level

C) an energy sublevel D) an atomic number


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