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The Downfall of Classical PhysicsPowerPoint Presentation

The Downfall of Classical Physics

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The Downfall of Classical Physics

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Niels Bohr applies Quantum Mechanics to Rutherford’s model and proposes that electrons are located around the nucleus in energy levels.

Spectral lines can be explained by the movement of electrons from one energy level to another.

- “Rings” of Bohr’s planetary model
- 7 possible energy levels
- Maximum number of electrons in each energy level = 2n2
- 1st level:
- 2nd level:
- 3rd level:

2

8

18

- 4 types of sublevels:
- s
- p
- d
- f

- Every energy level begets a new sublevel
- Energy level 1: 1 sublevel (s)
- Energy level 2: 2 sublevels (s, p)

- s sublevel = 1 s orbital
- p sublevel = 3 p orbitals
- d sublevel = 5 d orbitals
- f sublevel = 7 f orbitals

- “Spin up”
- “Spin down”

- An orbital can hold a maximum of TWO electrons
- Pauli exclusion principle
- Aufbauprinciple
- Hund’s rule

- no two electrons can have the same “address”
- Energy level
- Sublevel
- Orbital
- Spin

- Electrons will fill the orbitals with the lowest amount of energybefore filling in orbitals that have more energy
- Order is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p

- Electrons will not share an orbital of the same energy if there is an empty orbital with that energy is available

Orbital

Spin

1

s

Energy level

Sublevel

1s

2s

2p

- Use periodic table to figure out where to end (energy level and sublevel of last electron)
- Draw boxes (orbitals) for all energy levels and sublevels up to the ending point
- 1 box for s, 3 boxes for p, 5 boxes for d, 7 boxes for f

- Fill boxes with electrons (2 per orbital) with opposite spins
- Follow Hund’s rule when in the p, d, or f sublevels

- Based on orbital diagrams
- Use numbers and superscripts along with s, p, d and f to show location of electrons in atoms
- Coefficient = energy level
- Letter = sublevel
- Superscript = # of electrons in sublevel

Energy level2 electrons

1s2

sublevel

1s

2s

2p

1s22s22p3

- Draw the orbital diagram for oxygen
- Write the electron configuration for oxygen

1s

2s

2p

1s22s22p4

- Shortcut (shortened) Notation:
- Use closest Noble Gas before the element
- For bromine:
- Closest Noble Gas before the element:
- Argon:

- Shortcut Notation:

1s22s22p63s23p6

4s23d104p5

1s22s22p63s23p6

[Ar] 4s23d104p5b

- 1s22s22p63s23p63d1
- 1s22s22p23s23p24s1
- 1s22s22p63s23p3
- 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Each period number in the periodic table corresponds to _______A)an atomic massB)an energy level

C)an energy sublevelD)an atomic number