Indigenous peoples
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Indigenous Peoples. ANTH 146. Terms. Indigenous peoples• Tribal / Tribal people Genocide• Ethnocide Terra Nullius• Social Darwinism Imperialism Economies and • Colonialism Exchange . Indigenous People

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Indigenous Peoples

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous Peoples

ANTH 146


Terms

Terms

  • Indigenous peoples• Tribal / Tribal people

  • Genocide• Ethnocide

  • Terra Nullius• Social Darwinism

  • Imperialism

  • Economies and • Colonialism

  • Exchange


Indigenous peoples

Indigenous People

• claim their lands because they were the 1st or have occupied them since time immemorial

• are groups that have been conquered by peoples racially, ethnically, or culturally different from themselves (Colonization, Westernization, Urbanization and the role of Nation State)


Indigenous peoples

  • Native peoples of the Americas share many parallels with indigenous peoples today

  • Indigenous peoples had no place in the making of the Nation-state.


Social darwinism

Social Darwinism

  • Theory of social evolution

  • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution

  • Scientific support for imperialism

    • Proved Western superiority

    • Justified imperialism in the name of progress.


Social darwinism1

Social Darwinism

  • Placed societies on an evolutionary framework

  • Hierarchy with indigenous and tribal peoples at the bottom and Western societies at the top

  • Natural order of things was for stronger, more advanced people to conquer and rule over weaker, more backward ones


Indigenous peoples

  • To overcome “backwardness” and indigenous society was urged to:

    • Abandon its traditional way of life

    • Abandon its language

    • Cease to exist as a separate society

    • Assimilate with the population


Ethnocide

Ethnocide

  • Conquest of the indigenous peoples was justified

    • They were not fully human (no rights)

    • Need to civilize them

    • Development

      • Indigenous peoples stand in the way of development


Indigenous peoples

  • If indigenous peoples unwilling to assimilate

    • They undermine the State

    • Impede modernization


Economies

Economies

  • Definition: Making or getting a living

  • Production, Distribution, Consumption

  • Economic types:

    • Foraging, food-collecting  reciprocal exchange, mobile bands, consumption for survival

  • Horticulture, garden cultivation  redistribution by chiefs for prestige

  • Pastoralism  redistribution

    Agriculture  market exchange, private land ownership

    Industrialization – of goods and food  market exchange, stratified social classes, consumption goal in itself

    • Service/information economies


Exchange

Exchange

  • Exchange (distribution of goods) promotes social cohesion

  • Major types of exchange:

    • Reciprocity

    • Redistribution

    • Market


Reciprocity

Reciprocity

  • Food collecting, small-scale societies

  • Egalitarian

  • Fosters long-term relations

  • Everyone taken care of  moral economy

  • Redistribution

  • Centralized collection of surplus (food, goods, etc.) by chief

  • Redistribution through feasting – provides for all

  • Often competitive -- gain in status, prestige


Market exchange

Market Exchange

  • Buying/selling of commodities (even food)

  • Direct exchange of goods (barter)

  • Exchange through money


Nomads foragers pastoralists

Nomads: Foragers/Pastoralists

  • Highly mobile

  • Inconvenient to nation-states

  • Straddle national boundaries

  • Disrupt the imaginary map of homogenous development


Indigenous peoples

  • Hunter and Gatherer

  • Pastoralists

    • Animal husbandry

  • Horticulturalists

    • Swidden agriculture / slash and burn


Indigenous peoples

Indigenous cultures are not

extinguished by natural laws but by

political processes that are susceptible

to human controls.


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