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General Meteorology and Their Application Towards Forecasting. National Weather Service Shreveport, LA www.srh.noaa.gov/shv. Air Masses. Synoptic Meteorology. Pressure and Wind. Origin of Wind. How Do Clouds Form?.

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General meteorology and their application towards forecasting

General Meteorology and Their Application Towards Forecasting

National Weather Service Shreveport, LA

www.srh.noaa.gov/shv


Air masses
Air Masses Forecasting



Pressure and wind
Pressure and Wind Forecasting


Origin of wind
Origin of Wind Forecasting


How do clouds form
How Do Clouds Form? Forecasting

  • In order to understand this process, we must first understand cold/warm air, and their relationship with density.

  • What is density??? (See experiment)


Cloud formation
Cloud Formation Forecasting


Cloud formation cont d
Cloud Formation (Cont’d) Forecasting

Warm air rises (less dense), and will gradually cool. The air will begin condensing (when the temperature and dewpoint become closer together), and water droplets bond onto condensation nuclei. These nuclei will collide with other nuclei, eventually forming a cloud.


Types of clouds
Types of Clouds Forecasting

Low clouds: Consist of stratoform (flat) clouds, or cumuloform (puffy) clouds, lying on or just above the surface (up to ~10,000 ft).

Stratus: Cumulus:


Types of clouds cont d
Types of Clouds (Cont’d) Forecasting

Middle Clouds: Consist of altoform (meaning a middle cloud) type clouds, extending from 10,000 – 20,000 feet above the surface.

Altostratus: Altocumulus:


Types of clouds cont d1
Types of Clouds (Cont’d) Forecasting

High Clouds: Consists of mainly ice crystals suspended above 20,000 feet from the surface. These clouds are wispy/crisp/featherlike in appearance, and do not produce precipitation.

Cirrus: Cirrostratus: Cirrocumulus:


How does rain form
How Does Rain Form??? Forecasting

  • Through the collision/coalescence process, water droplets continue to grow, forming clouds. If enough lift is present in the atmosphere (produced by fronts for example), updrafts are created, which forces the cloud to grow taller. The water droplets continue to grow inside of clouds, until they become too heavy to be suspended by the updraft. It is then that these droplets fall down to the earth as rain.


Types of fronts
Types of Fronts Forecasting

  • Now that we have learned the concepts of density, we can better understand what fronts are and how they affect the weather.

  • Cold Front: A transition zone where cold/dry, and stable air, replaces warm/moist, and unstable air. It is depicted by a blue line with triangles pointing towards the direction of movement.


Cold front
Cold Front Forecasting

Colder

Temperatures

27

54

33

Warmer

Temperatures

62


Cold front vertical profile
Cold Front (Vertical Profile) Forecasting

Advancing

Cold air

Rising Warm

air


Warm front
Warm Front Forecasting

Colder

Temperatures

45

Warm

Front

38

55

Warmer

Temperatures

62


Warm front vertical profile
Warm Front (Vertical Profile) Forecasting

Warm

air

Cold air


Stationary front
Stationary Front Forecasting

Cold

Air

Warm

Air


Mapping exercise
Mapping Exercise Forecasting

  • Draw and analyze a surface weather map for pressure and temperature, and draw the fronts that are indicated by these two variables.

  • Discuss our results.


Pressure front map
Pressure/Front Map Forecasting



Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments Forecasting

  • Jetstreamwebsite – Southern Region Headquarters , National Weather Service

  • www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream


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