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Challenges Deploying a Global Network Holly Brackett Pease Director, Network Engineering. Digital Island. Challenges Deploying A Global Network. The Digital Island Solution A Brief Overview of BGP Challenges of Worldwide Routing Ensuring Routes Are Accepted Tier-1 Provider Policies

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Challenges Deploying a Global NetworkHolly Brackett PeaseDirector, Network Engineering

Digital Island

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

challenges deploying a global network
Challenges Deploying A Global Network
  • The Digital Island Solution
  • A Brief Overview of BGP
  • Challenges of Worldwide Routing
    • Ensuring Routes Are Accepted
    • Tier-1 Provider Policies
    • BGP Limitations
  • Logistics of Deploying a Global Environment

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

audience
Audience
  • Network Managers Homed to Multiple Internet Service Providers
  • Network Managers building a Global Network
  • Network Managers with International Internet Connectivity
  • General Interest in Internet Routing

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

the digital island problem
The Digital Island Problem
  • Internet: A Collection of Autonomous Networks
  • US-Centric Internet
    • In some regions of the world, country-country traffic passes through the US
  • Congested Internet Exchanges and NAPs
  • Increased Demand for International Access

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

the digital island solution
The Digital Island Solution
  • A Private Global Network Built to Deliver QOS
  • Bypasses Congested NAPs and Exchange Points
  • One Hop to the World

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

the digital island strategy
The Digital Island Strategy
  • Private Backbone
  • Geographic-based Routing
  • Peer with Tier-1 International Partners
    • Partners distribute routes in-country

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

a brief overview of bgp
A Brief Overview of BGP
  • Backbone protocol of the Internet
    • Used by providers to Advertise Routes, Attempt to Get Best Paths
    • Routes Exchanged by Peers using Autonomous System Numbers
  • BGP Rules
    • Local Pref
    • AS Hops
    • MEDs
    • Lowest Router ID

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

challenges of worldwide routing
Challenges of Worldwide Routing
  • Ensuring Routes are Accepted
  • Providing Predictable Routing Paths
  • Limitations of BGP

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

ensuring routes are accepted
Ensuring Routes are Accepted
  • Transit Traffic Paranoia

Transit: Traffic that is not destined to or from a given provider’s customers, yet crosses that provider’s backbone

    • Policy 1: Only Accept Routes Originating from Direct Peers
    • Policy 2: Transit Agreements
    • Policy 3: Restrict Number of AS Hops on routes received from Peers
    • Policies usually Managed at Internet Exchanges

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

ensuring routes are accepted1
Ensuring Routes are Accepted
  • Transit Traffic Paranoia (cont’d)
    • Some downstream providers choose “none of the above”
      • Want to maintain market share in countries - no direct peering with in-country peers
      • Don’t want to pay for Transit Agreements
      • If No Direct Peers, Policy #3 is useless
    • 3 Solutions:
        • Ask nicely
        • Pay to Peer
        • Suffer the Consequences

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

ensuring routes are accepted2
Ensuring Routes are Accepted
  • A Government-regulated Internet Exchange
      • Israel’s IIX
        • operated by Israeli Internet Society (ISOC-IL)
        • non-profit
        • regulated by Ministry of Communications
      • Strict Local Policies
        • Only accepts Israeli-registered routes

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

providing predictable routing paths
Providing Predictable Routing Paths
  • Control Your Advertisements
    • Send Metrics
    • Use Specifics
    • No-Export
  • US Tier-1 Providers: Private Peering
    • Inconsistent
    • Congested Pipes

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

providing predictable routing paths1
Providing Predictable Routing Paths
  • C&W (previously mci.net) Routing Policy
    • Local Pref All Routes Received from Customer Peers
    • Problem: Some US-based Downstream providers hear Digital Island through International Points
      • equal AS Hops
    • Solution: Force Peers who are C&W customers not to Advertise to C&W
  • UUNET
    • No local-pref default, but similar policy for controlling routing within net

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

providing predictable routing paths2
Providing Predictable Routing Paths
  • BGP Limitations
    • BGP Routing Extremely Limited
    • Metrics, Local Pref, AS Hops, Specific Advertisements extremely limited tools
    • Does not account for link speeds, congestion

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

every day application
Every Day Application
  • Multi-homed Environment
    • Understand your provider’s routing policies
    • Control your Advertisements
    • Learn the “true” best route and operate accordingly
  • International Internet Connectivity
    • Advertise Specifics
    • Use Geographic AS’s

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

every day application1
Every Day Application
  • International Application Deployment
    • Understand your provider’s connectivity
    • Test your provider
    • Make your provider work for you

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

logistics of deploying a global environment
Logistics of Deploying a Global Environment
  • International Carriers
    • Americans are in such a hurry
    • What’s an NTU?
    • X.21 is not a movie rating
    • Be precise about the interface you expect; then pray
  • Customary Problems
    • Are you ready?
    • Value-Added Tax
    • Who shipped what, when?

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

logistics of deploying a global environment1
Logistics of Deploying a Global Environment
  • There’s no Fry’s in Europe
    • You don’t accept VISA?
    • Anixter is your friend (this is not an endorsement)
  • Everything takes twice as long as you thought it would

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99

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