Challenges Deploying a Global Network
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Challenges Deploying a Global Network Holly Brackett Pease Director, Network Engineering. Digital Island. Challenges Deploying A Global Network. The Digital Island Solution A Brief Overview of BGP Challenges of Worldwide Routing Ensuring Routes Are Accepted Tier-1 Provider Policies

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Challenges Deploying a Global Network Holly Brackett Pease Director, Network Engineering

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Challenges deploying a global network holly brackett pease director network engineering

Challenges Deploying a Global NetworkHolly Brackett PeaseDirector, Network Engineering

Digital Island

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Challenges deploying a global network

Challenges Deploying A Global Network

  • The Digital Island Solution

  • A Brief Overview of BGP

  • Challenges of Worldwide Routing

    • Ensuring Routes Are Accepted

    • Tier-1 Provider Policies

    • BGP Limitations

  • Logistics of Deploying a Global Environment

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Audience

Audience

  • Network Managers Homed to Multiple Internet Service Providers

  • Network Managers building a Global Network

  • Network Managers with International Internet Connectivity

  • General Interest in Internet Routing

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


The digital island problem

The Digital Island Problem

  • Internet: A Collection of Autonomous Networks

  • US-Centric Internet

    • In some regions of the world, country-country traffic passes through the US

  • Congested Internet Exchanges and NAPs

  • Increased Demand for International Access

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


The digital island solution

The Digital Island Solution

  • A Private Global Network Built to Deliver QOS

  • Bypasses Congested NAPs and Exchange Points

  • One Hop to the World

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


The digital island strategy

The Digital Island Strategy

  • Private Backbone

  • Geographic-based Routing

  • Peer with Tier-1 International Partners

    • Partners distribute routes in-country

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


A brief overview of bgp

A Brief Overview of BGP

  • Backbone protocol of the Internet

    • Used by providers to Advertise Routes, Attempt to Get Best Paths

    • Routes Exchanged by Peers using Autonomous System Numbers

  • BGP Rules

    • Local Pref

    • AS Hops

    • MEDs

    • Lowest Router ID

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Challenges of worldwide routing

Challenges of Worldwide Routing

  • Ensuring Routes are Accepted

  • Providing Predictable Routing Paths

  • Limitations of BGP

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Ensuring routes are accepted

Ensuring Routes are Accepted

  • Transit Traffic Paranoia

    Transit: Traffic that is not destined to or from a given provider’s customers, yet crosses that provider’s backbone

    • Policy 1: Only Accept Routes Originating from Direct Peers

    • Policy 2: Transit Agreements

    • Policy 3: Restrict Number of AS Hops on routes received from Peers

    • Policies usually Managed at Internet Exchanges

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Ensuring routes are accepted1

Ensuring Routes are Accepted

  • Transit Traffic Paranoia (cont’d)

    • Some downstream providers choose “none of the above”

      • Want to maintain market share in countries - no direct peering with in-country peers

      • Don’t want to pay for Transit Agreements

      • If No Direct Peers, Policy #3 is useless

    • 3 Solutions:

      • Ask nicely

      • Pay to Peer

      • Suffer the Consequences

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Ensuring routes are accepted2

Ensuring Routes are Accepted

  • A Government-regulated Internet Exchange

    • Israel’s IIX

      • operated by Israeli Internet Society (ISOC-IL)

      • non-profit

      • regulated by Ministry of Communications

    • Strict Local Policies

      • Only accepts Israeli-registered routes

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Providing predictable routing paths

Providing Predictable Routing Paths

  • Control Your Advertisements

    • Send Metrics

    • Use Specifics

    • No-Export

  • US Tier-1 Providers: Private Peering

    • Inconsistent

    • Congested Pipes

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Providing predictable routing paths1

Providing Predictable Routing Paths

  • C&W (previously mci.net) Routing Policy

    • Local Pref All Routes Received from Customer Peers

    • Problem: Some US-based Downstream providers hear Digital Island through International Points

      • equal AS Hops

    • Solution: Force Peers who are C&W customers not to Advertise to C&W

  • UUNET

    • No local-pref default, but similar policy for controlling routing within net

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Providing predictable routing paths2

Providing Predictable Routing Paths

  • BGP Limitations

    • BGP Routing Extremely Limited

    • Metrics, Local Pref, AS Hops, Specific Advertisements extremely limited tools

    • Does not account for link speeds, congestion

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Every day application

Every Day Application

  • Multi-homed Environment

    • Understand your provider’s routing policies

    • Control your Advertisements

    • Learn the “true” best route and operate accordingly

  • International Internet Connectivity

    • Advertise Specifics

    • Use Geographic AS’s

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Every day application1

Every Day Application

  • International Application Deployment

    • Understand your provider’s connectivity

    • Test your provider

    • Make your provider work for you

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Logistics of deploying a global environment

Logistics of Deploying a Global Environment

  • International Carriers

    • Americans are in such a hurry

    • What’s an NTU?

    • X.21 is not a movie rating

    • Be precise about the interface you expect; then pray

  • Customary Problems

    • Are you ready?

    • Value-Added Tax

    • Who shipped what, when?

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


Logistics of deploying a global environment1

Logistics of Deploying a Global Environment

  • There’s no Fry’s in Europe

    • You don’t accept VISA?

    • Anixter is your friend (this is not an endorsement)

  • Everything takes twice as long as you thought it would

Holly Brackett Pease

USENIX NETA‘99


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