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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity. Section 1 The Roman Republic. Section 1 Objective. Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and the ways it changed. Terms to Define. Patrician: wealthy aristocrat class that had come into being in Rome—Latin nobles.

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Chapter 6 ancient rome and early christianity

Chapter 6Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

Section 1

The Roman Republic


Section 1 objective
Section 1 Objective

  • Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and the ways it changed


Terms to define
Terms to Define

  • Patrician: wealthy aristocrat class that had come into being in Rome—Latin nobles.

  • Republic: a community in which the people elected the leaders.

  • Plebian: Most of Rome’s inhabitants, some wealthy, some not, non-aristocratic townspeople and landowners as well as merchants, shopkeepers, small farmers, and laborers.

  • Consul: Two patrician officials elected for one year terms. They had to consult each other before acting.


Terms con t
Terms (con’t)

  • Dictator: a leader whose word was law—occurred mostly during times of crisis

  • Tribunes: representatives chosen by Plebians, granting them legal protections and the right to veto government decisions


People to meet
People to Meet

  • The Etruscans

  • The Latins

  • Romulus

  • The Tarquins


Places to locate
Places to Locate

  • Italy

  • Sicily

  • Rome


Introduction
Introduction

  • Greeks settled as colonies 900 B.C.

  • Set up farming communities

  • Planted olive trees and other crops

  • Introduced Greek alphabet


The italian peninsula
The Italian Peninsula

  • The Greeks were interested in colonizing Italy for several reasons

    -Central location in the Mediterranean

    -Rich soil


The italian peninsula1
The Italian Peninsula

Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff

-Land to the north cut off by the Apls

Mild, moist, climate

-Ideally suited for trade among three continents—Europe, Asia, Africa


The italian peninsula2
The Italian Peninsula

  • Silt would often clog the rivers

    • Created mosquito infested areas

    • Epidemics of Malaria, etc


Early inhabitants
Early Inhabitants

  • Generally traded among themselves

    -Mountains

    -Rocky coastline

    -Covered 75% of the country


Early inhabitants1
Early Inhabitants

  • Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff

    -Land to the north cut off by the Alps

    -Generally traded among themselves


Geographic problems
Geographic Problems

  • Silt created swamps which drew mosquitos

  • Marshy coastline wasn’t good for harbors


Early peoples
Early Peoples

  • Neolithic cultures probably 5000 B.C.

  • People there long before the Greeks arrived or Roman civilization began

  • Villages and farms


Indo europeans
Indo-Europeans

  • Umbrians, Latins (Latium--LAY-shee-uhm--), Oscans

  • Indo-European migrants arrived and overwhelmed the Neolithic peoples on Italian Peninsula 2000-1000 B.C.


The etruscans
The Etruscans

  • Ruled northern Italy from 900 B.C. to 500 B.C.

  • Did not speak Indo-European languages

  • Their alphabet came from the Greeks—but only a few Etruscan words have been deciphered


The etruscans con t
The Etruscans (con’t)

  • Etruscans writing baffles scientists

  • Etruscan art (paintings and sculptures) is expressive, needing no translation

    -dancing, playing, rich and pleasant life


The etruscans1
The Etruscans

  • The Etruscans…more

    • feasting, conversing, wrestling matches

    • Triumphant soldiers

    • Beautiful deities, smile and gesture


The etruscans con t1
The Etruscans (con’t)

  • Wealthy overlords

  • Aristocratic priests

  • Slave labor

  • Slaves forced to dual to the death to appease angry gods

  • Lower classes finally freed themselves—chief among them were the Latins who settled in Rome


The etruscans2
The Etruscans

  • The Latins freed themselves after being offended by the Etruscans

  • Son of Etruscan king savages matron, Lucretia


The rise of rome legend
The Rise of Rome--Legend

  • Legend

    -753 B.C. Romulus was building a wall for his city on the side of a hill overlooking the Tiber River

    -Twin brother Remus building on the other side of the hill


The rise of rome
The Rise of Rome

  • According to Roman historian Livy, Remus leaped over the wall built by Romulus and mocked him.

  • Romulus killed Remus warning, “so perish whoever else shall overleap my battlements”


Romulus myth
Romulus--myth

  • Continued to build Rome—named after him

    • Romulus—myth—great military commander

    • Rome continues to expand

  • Rome became the greatest city in that part of the peninsula


Rome origins
Rome Origins

  • Latins

    -Huddled in huts on seven hills

    -At some point, 800 B.C.-700 B.C., they joined to become one community--Rome


Etruscan rule
Etruscan Rule

  • About 620 B.C., the Etruscan gained control of Rome

  • The Tarquins, name of Etruscan family

    -Taught the Latins to use brick to build

    -Drained the lowlands and laid out streets


Etruscan rule1
Etruscan Rule

  • Created the Forum in the middle of the city—which became the government building

    -Served as kings for Rome


The tarquins
The Tarquins

  • Wealthy Etruscan family

  • Provided kings for rule

  • Taught Romans to built with brick and tile their roofs

  • Drained marsh lands and designed streets


The tarquins1
The Tarquins

  • Created a square called the Forum

    • The seat of government


Tarquins driven out
Tarquins Driven Out

  • Tarquin the Proud—very cruel

  • Romans drive the Tarquins out

  • Etruscans stay and help Rome prosper

  • Tarquin kings son violates Lacretia


Social groups
Social Groups

  • Latin nobles called “patricians”

    • Patricians declared Rome a republic

    • Wealthy aristocrats


Social groups1
Social Groups

  • Most of Rome’s inhabitants were plebians,

    -Both patricians and plebians could vote

    -Both responsible for serving in military


Social groups2
Social Groups

Patricians

Plebians

Vote

Pay taxes

Serve in the military

  • Vote

  • Pay taxes

  • Serve in the military

  • Could hold public office


The roman republic
The Roman Republic

  • Patricians organized Rome’s government into executive and legislative branches

  • Executive Branch

    • Two consuls assigned day-to-day affairs

    • One year terms

    • Each could veto the other

    • Veto: Latin for “I forbid”


The roman republic1
The Roman Republic

  • Consuls oversaw other officials

    • Praetors: judges

    • Censors: keepers of taxes

  • Only a dictator could overrule the consuls

  • Dictators appointed in times of crisis


The roman republic2
The Roman Republic

  • Legislative Branch

    -Assembly of Centuries (named for 100 soldiers)

    -Senate


The roman republic3
The Roman Republic

Assembly of Centuries

Senate

Executive Branch

Under Patrician control

Power outweighed Assembly

Members—300

Served for life

Advised Consuls

Proposed laws

Approved contracts

  • Elected from Executive Branch officials

  • Under patrician control

  • Named for military formation

  • Members—100

  • Temporary office

  • Little real power


Cincinnatus
Cincinnatus

  • Most respected dictator

  • Rival threatened Rome

  • Found plowing his fields

  • Led his troops to victory

  • Resigned as dictator and returned to his fields within 16 days


Plebians against patricians
Plebians Against Patricians

  • Plebeians resented power of Patricians

  • Knew they could not rule without them.

  • Plebeians made up most of military forces

  • Patricians concerned about the military


Plebeians against patricians
Plebeians Against Patricians

  • Plebeians went on strike

  • Left city create their own republic


Tribunes
Tribunes

  • Patricians meet some demands

    • Recognized the Plebeians chosen representatives,“Tribunes”

    • Granted them legal protections and the right to veto government decisions

    • Tribunes were members of the Magistrate of Plebeians and had some power


Tribunes1
Tribunes

  • Patricians recognized the Assembly of Tribes, the body of plebeians that elected tribunes

  • Tribunes could veto any government decision


Tribunes2
Tribunes

  • Could not be arrested

  • Injuring a Tribune was cause to be put to death


Old and new laws
Old and New Laws

  • Plebeians insisted laws put in writing

  • The Twelve Tablets: basis of Roman law

  • Plebeians gain right to serve in public office

  • Right to make laws in Assembly of Tribes


Changes for plebeians
Changes for Plebeians

  • Debt enslavement ended

  • Patrician/Plebeian marriage approved

  • Plebeians moved Rome closer to democracy

  • The most significant victory—the Twelve Tables—a written law code


The twelve tables
The Twelve Tables

  • Roman law had rested on unwritten traditions

    • patrician judges interpreted unfairly

    • Plebeians insisted laws be written down


The twelve tables1
The Twelve Tables

  • 451 B.C. patricians engraved the laws on 12 bronze tablets set in the Forum

    -standards for laws

    -principle that citizens protected by law


Religion
Religion

  • Early Etruscans worshipped “spirits” ultimately seen as gods or deities

  • Adopted practice of foretelling the future


Religion1
Religion

  • Priests known as soothsayers

  • Watched flight of birds or intestines of animals to gain knowledge of future


Religion2
Religion

  • Roman influenced by Greek culture

  • 500 years as a republic

  • Borrowed Greek deities giving them Roman names

    -Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love, became the Roman goddess, Venus

    -Ares, Greek god of war, became Mars

    - Etc.


Religion con t
Religion (con’t)

  • Families privately worshipped their ancestral spirits and their storeroom guardians

  • Worshipped Vesta, goddess of the hearth


Family
Family

  • The basic unit of roman society

  • Large and close knit

  • Unmarried children, married sons and their family, all independent relatives, and household slaves

  • The father was the absolute head


Father as absolute family head
Father as Absolute Family Head

  • Conducted religious ceremonies

  • Controlled property

  • Supervised education of his sons

  • Could sell his family members into slavery

  • Could kill family members

  • However, fathers felt deep sense of responsibility for family


Roman women
Roman Women

  • Few rights, but more than Greek women

  • Hosted parties, did marketing, ran households

  • Occasionally, acquired property and businesses

  • Could study art, Greek literature, etc

  • Wealthy could let slaves do work


Roman children
Roman Children

  • Firm discipline

  • Complete family loyalty


Parental training
Parental Training

  • Parents taught children reading, writing, and moral standards

  • Fathers trained boys: farmers and soldiers

  • Mothers taught daughters to run households


Values
Values

  • Thrift

  • Discipline

  • Self-sacrifice

  • Devotion to family

  • Devotion to the republic


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