III. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. Factors affecting SLL:. 1- intelligence 2- aptitude 3- learning styles 4- personality 5- motivation and attitude 6- identity & ethnic group affiliation 7- learner beliefs 8- age of acquisition & the CPH. 1- Intelligence
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III. Individual Differences in Second LanguageLearning
3- learning styles
5- motivation and attitude
6- identity & ethnic group affiliation
7- learner beliefs
8- age of acquisition & the CPH
* Learners’ strengths and weaknesses in these different components may account for their ability to succeed in different types of instructional programs.
By: Asia Al-Amri
What are the Learning Styles?
Those styles are called perceptually –based learning styles
Let me see it!
Let me hear it!
get it now.
Let me try it!
The cognitive leaning styles
For a number of years, it was widely reported that there was a strong relation between field independent and success in SLL.
4- Personality By: Ashwaq Al-Harbi
In certain learning situation the quiet observant may have greater success.
It has been suggested that inhibition discourages risk-taking which is necessary for progress in language learning.
This is often a particular problem for adolescents who are more self-conscious than younger learners.
Alexander Guiora found support for the claim that inhibition is a negative force at least for second language pronunciation performance.
*Researches state that learners who willingly communicate in a wide range of conversational interactions are able to do so because their prior language learning has led to develop self-confidence.
*Several other personality characteristics such as self-esteem , empathy, dominance, talkativeness, and responsiveness have also been studied.
*Many researchers believe that personality has an important influence on success in language learning, however it is not personality alone but the way in which it combines with other factors that contributes to second language learning.
5- Motivation and attitudes
Motivation has been defined in terms of two factors:
Q. How are (a) and (b) related to SLL?
Q. What is the difference between Integrative
and Instrumental motivations?
7- Learner beliefs
available to the young child.
* The critical period ends somewhere around puberty.
Parkowski found that age of acquisition isa very important factor in setting limits on the development of the native-like mastery of a second language and that this limitation does not apply only to accent. It also applies to syntax and morphology.
Parkowski compared learners who began their intensive exposure to English between the ages of three and fifteen with those who arrived in the USA between the ages of seventeen and thirty-nine.
* He found that learners who began earliest achieved the highest scores on the grammaticality judgment task. Those who began later did not have native-like language abilities and their performance on the test varied more widely.
AT WHAT AGE SHOULD SECOND LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION BEGIN?
* DDecisions about when to start second language programs in school should based on realistic estimates of how long it takes to learn a second language. One or two hours a week will not produce advanced second language speakers no matter how young they were when they began. Older learners may be able to make better use of the limited time they have for second language instruction.hould based on how long it takes to learn. Decisions about when to start second language programs in school should based on how long it takes to learn.
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