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An Introduction to System Engineering . Professor Peter Gorm Larsen ([email protected]). Agenda. What is System Engineering? Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches The Systems Challenge Software inside Systems Model-Based System Engineering What is the Aim of this Study Group?.

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An introduction to system engineering l.jpg

An Introduction to System Engineering

Professor Peter Gorm Larsen

([email protected])

An Introduction to System Engineering


Agenda l.jpg

Agenda

  • What is System Engineering?

  • Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • The Systems Challenge

  • Software inside Systems

  • Model-Based System Engineering

  • What is the Aim of this Study Group?

An Introduction to System Engineering


System engineering definition incose l.jpg

System Engineering: Definition (Incose)

  • Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem:

    • Operations

    • Performance

    • Test

    • Manufacturing

    • Cost & Schedule

    • Training & Support

    • Disposal

An Introduction to System Engineering


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System Engineering: Definition (Incose)

  • Systems Engineering integrates

  • All the disciplines and

  • specialty groups into a team effort forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation.

  • Systems Engineering considers both

  • The business and

  • The technical needs of all customers with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs.

An Introduction to System Engineering


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How to make integration?

Control system

Technical system

Information

System

System organisation

Technological

System

Sub-system

technology

Sub-system

Information

Logistic

Sub-system

human

Information and

Decision System

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Integration versus specific domains

Standards

IEEE 1220

EIA 632

ISO 15288

System

engineering

System

Integration

Soft-Eng

ISO 12207

Expertise for specific domain

Chemical

Mechanical

Implementation of each component

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The SE context

An Introduction to System Engineering


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System Layering

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Standards

  • IEEE-1220

  • INCOSE/EIA-632

  • ISO 15288

  • Specific : aeronautic . ARP and space ECSS-E10

Standard are guideline for common understanding and Good Practice

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Agenda

  • What is System Engineering?

  • Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • The Systems Challenge

  • Software inside Systems

  • Model-Based System Engineering

  • What is the Aim of this Study Group?

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Inter-disciplinary involvement

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Systems may be any technology

  • Mechanical

  • Electronic

  • Software

  • Chemical

  • Thermodynamic

  • Human organizations

  • Biological

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Not everything that has parts is a system

  • For components to “interact”, there must be an idea of “state” and relationship between states of components:

    • Two components interact if the state of at least one is impacted by the interaction having occurred

    • A book, a piece of music, or a photograph have their own components, but not direct interactions between them

  • This view distinguishes the engineering view of systems from “systems” in some other fields.

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Example system

  • System: Semi-trailer truck hauling freight

  • Components: engine, power train, suspension, lubrication system, fuel system, braking system, electrical system, cab, trailer, navigation system, communication system, software modules

  • Relationships: physical containment, power dependency, control interaction, mechanical connection, thermal interaction

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Physical and Logical Systems

  • A Logical System is equivalent to a functional role.

  • Physical Systems may be assigned responsibilities to perform roles that are Logical Systems.

  • What plays the role of Engine System in a gas-fired generator?

  • What plays the role of Engine System in a hybrid automobile?

  • Example of Logical System:

    • Engine System: An Engine System converts atmospheric air and chemical fuel into rotating mechanical power for use by other machine subsystems.

  • Examples of Physical Systems:

    • Toyota Camry Model XLE Automobile

    • Caterpillar Model 3406 Diesel Engine

    • Program Module 1750

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Services

  • A Service is:

    • a feature of a system

    • what system users consume

    • something that can be measured and be subject to a service level agreement

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The system engineering process

An Introduction to System Engineering


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System hierarchies

An Introduction to System Engineering


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System architecture modelling

  • An architectural model presents an abstract view of the sub-systems making up a system

  • May include major information flows between sub-systems

  • Usually presented as a block diagram

  • May identify different types of functional component in the model

An Introduction to System Engineering


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An Example of System Components

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Agenda

  • What is System Engineering?

  • Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • The Systems Challenge

  • Software inside Systems

  • Model-Based System Engineering

  • What is the Aim of this Study Group?

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The Systems Challenge

The Man-Made World Is Increasingly Populated by Systems

  • Transportation, Energy & Power Systems

  • Manufacturing, Construction Systems

  • Telecommunication Networks

  • Man-Made Biological & Health Care Systems

  • Facility, Properties

  • Business Processes

  • Other Man-Made and Natural Systems

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The Systems Challenge

These Systems Are Becoming More Complex

  • Under pressure of demand & competition

  • Enabled by progress in technology

  • Becoming more complex at exponentially growing rates

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The Systems Challenge

The Growth Of Systems Complexity Eventually Can Outpace Human Ability To:

  • Describe

  • Predict

  • Manage

  • Monitor

  • Configure

  • Evolve

  • Understand

  • Install

  • Operate

  • Repair

  • Maintain

  • Account For

  • Communicate About

  • Design and Implement

  • Manufacture

  • Diagnose

  • Control

  • Maintain Security Of

Those Systems . . .

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The Systems Challenge

. . . At Least Within Reasonable:

  • Time

  • Cost

  • Effort

  • Sense of Security from Risk

Incose : Faster, Better and Cheaper

For a meal : must NOT result in MacDonald Hamburger !!

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Agenda

  • What is System Engineering?

  • Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • The Systems Challenge

  • Software inside Systems

  • Model-Based System Engineering

  • What is the Aim of this Study Group?

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Software and systems engineering

  • Proportion of software in systems is increasing. Software-driven general purpose electronics is replacing special-purpose systems

  • Problems of systems engineering are similar to problems of software engineering

  • Software is (unfortunately) seen as a problem in systems engineering. Many large system projects have been delayed because of software problems

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Expressing Requirements

  • Maturity levels for expression of requirements

  • Standard languages and methods

  • Dedicated methods

  • Others

Intended message and perceived message : That´s all about semantics !!

Pragmatics and Syntactic issues have a role

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Requirement validation

  • Importance of Validation

  • V&V Techniques

Eureka, It Works !!

It means it corresponds to

What You requested and

What You needed

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Concept of Operations

  • The concept of operations (ConOps) document is a bridge between the operational requirements (events occurring over time) and the technical requirements (static, hierarchical description).  It is written in narrative prose that is in the user's language.  It states priorities, it uses visual images and leads to software requirements. 

  • IEEE Standard 1362, IEEE Guide for Concept of Operations Document, 1998.

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Needs, requirement and specification

{

Concept of operations

(the mission)

Requirements

NEEDS

Specification

(Software requirements)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Why SE?: A Bad Experiences with Software Eng. (source NASA)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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An Introduction to System Engineering


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The Embedded Systems Challenge

We need a new formal foundation for computational systems, which systematically and even-handedly re-marries performance and robustness.

What is being computed? At what cost?

How does the performance change under disturbances? (change of context; change of resources; failures; attacks)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Embedded Systems Constraints

Execution constraints

CPU speed power failure rates

Embedded

System

Computation

algorithms protocols reuse

Reaction constraints

deadlines throughput jitter

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Hardware Engineering solves a part of the equation

Embedded System Design is generalized hardware design (e.g. System C)

Execution constraints

CPU speed power failure rates

Embedded

System

Computation

algorithms protocols reuse

Reaction constraints

deadlines throughput jitter

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Control Engineering solves a part of the equation

Execution constraints

CPU speed power failure rates

Embedded

System

Computation

algorithms protocols reuse

Reaction constraints

deadlines throughput jitter

Embedded System Design is generalized control design (e.g. Mathlab Simulink)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Current State of Affairs

50 years of computer science are largely ignored in embedded systems design: it is as if there were no choice between automatically synthesizing code on one hand, and assembly coding on the other hand.

Software is often the most costly and least flexible part of an embedded system.

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Software Engineering solves a part of the equation

Embedded System Design should not be left to electrical engineers

Execution constraints

CPU speed power failure rates

Embedded

System

Computation

algorithms protocols reuse

Reaction constraints

deadlines throughput jitter

An Introduction to System Engineering


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We need ways to combine views

Embedded System Design should not be left to electrical engineers

Execution constraints

CPU speed power failure rates

Embedded

System

Computation

algorithms protocols reuse

Reaction constraints

deadlines throughput jitter

BUT: we need to revisit and revise our most basic paradigms to include methods from EE

An Introduction to System Engineering


Agenda41 l.jpg

Agenda

  • What is System Engineering?

  • Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • The Systems Challenge

  • Software inside Systems

  • Model-Based System Engineering

  • What is the Aim of this Study Group?

An Introduction to System Engineering


Model based systems engineering l.jpg

Model-based systems engineering

  • Model-based systems engineering is an emerging approach to systems engineering:

    • See www.incose.org

  • Uses explicit models where previously informal, intuitive, natural language prose (e.g., English) of documents was used

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Michael Jackson’s World

  • A View based on environment and context

    • A machine (system) to be developed

    • Machine interacts with an environment

    • The environment exist; the machine is to be developed

    • User needs to make abstraction of system

    • Shared phenomen :

Shared

The Environment

(Private)

The machine

(Private)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Systems and their environment

  • Systems are not independent but exist in an environment

  • System’sfunction may be to change its environment

  • Environment affects the functioning of the system e.g. a system may require electrical supply from its environment

  • Organizational as well as physical environment may be important

An Introduction to System Engineering


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The need to combine different models

  • We need to be able to describe both the environment and the system

  • Different parts may be most naturally described in different kinds of models

  • Ideally we should be able to combine these and analyze them together somehow

  • Is this possible with existing system engineering techniques?

  • If not, what would enable such a combination?

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Agenda

  • What is System Engineering?

  • Systems require Interdisciplinary Approaches

  • The Systems Challenge

  • Software inside Systems

  • Model-Based System Engineering

  • What is the Aim of this Study Group?

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Conclusion

  • Systems engineering is hard!

  • There will never be an easy answer to the problems of complex system development

  • Software engineers do not have all the answers but are often better at taking a systems viewpoint

  • Disciplines need to recognise each othersstrengths and actively rather than reluctantly cooperate in the systems engineering process

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Study group goals

  • Grasp the importance of System Engineering (SE)

  • Analysis of selected SE methods, notations and tools

    • AADL (Architecture Analysis & Design Language)

      • Meta-H and Dome

    • SysML en UML 2.0 profile

      • Harmony (a development process for System Engineering)

    • AUTOSAR

    • SCADE

  • Existence of models bridging the disciplinary gaps?

  • Examined using a case study

  • Documented findings

    • By presentation to the rest of us and

    • in form of a report in article format

An Introduction to System Engineering


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AADL

  • The Architecture Analysis & Design Language

  • http://www.aadl.info/

  • Produced primarily by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

  • Used for avionics applications in particular

  • OSATE tool development on top of Eclipse

  • MetaH AADL Toolset

An Introduction to System Engineering


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SysML

  • Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

  • http://www.sysml.org/

  • http://groups-beta.google.com/group/SysMLforum

  • Based on UML

  • Driven by industry leaders as a response to OMG’s ”UML for Systems Engineering” RFP

  • Tool support for example for Rhapsody supported by a method called Harmony

  • Telelogic also has integration between SysML and Simulink (webinar February 15th)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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AUTOSAR

  • Automotive Open System Architecture

  • http://www.autosar.org/

  • Driven by the automotive industry

  • Aimed at going towards a component based development of embedded systems

  • Also tool supported by Telelogic

An Introduction to System Engineering


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SCADE

  • Provided by Esterel Technologies in France

  • http://www.esterel-technologies.com/products/scade-suite

  • Used on-board the new Airbus-380

  • Also combined with TTA (http://www.tttech.com/technology/docs/history/DASC_2004-10-TTA_SCADE.pdf)

  • Also a gateway (??) to SysML

An Introduction to System Engineering


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Study Group Structure

  • 2 persons in each group

  • Each group select one of the suggested subjects

    • FOH and PGL will try to form one group as well

    • If you cannot agree upon dividing 3 of 4 subjects it will be a lottery

  • Week 2: Guest visit from Kader, Toulouse

  • Week 2 + 3: Evaluate your subject with a case study

  • In week 4 each group present (.ppt) their subject

  • In week 6 each group hand in a report comparing their subjects to the alternatives (.pdf)

  • Each participant will have to read two other reports

  • Week 8 (or 9) each group will present and defend their report (the others who have read it + PGL will be opponents)

An Introduction to System Engineering


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