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Aldehydes are organic compounds which have the functional group

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Aldehydes are organic compounds which have the functional group -CHO at the end of a carbon chain. Naming Aldehydes: C ount the number of carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain - t his will give you the parent name, eg. two carbon atoms – ethane.

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Aldehydes are organic compounds which have the functional group

-CHO at the end of a carbon chain.

Naming Aldehydes:

  • Count the number of carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain - this will give you the parent name, eg. two carbon atoms – ethane.
  • Drop the –e ending of the parent name and add –al.
  • Alternatively, if the –CHO group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the suffix –carbaldehyde is used.

Example:

ethane  ethanal

  • Prefix: oxo-
  • Suffix: -al
slide3

Ketones are different from aldehydes in that the C=O bond is in the middle of two carbon atoms rather than at the end of the carbon chain.

Naming Ketones:

  • Count the number of carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain – this gives you the base name.
  • Then change the suffix –e of the base name to –one.

Example:

ethane  ethanone

  • Prefix: oxo-
  • Suffix: -one
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Carboxylic acids are defined by the functional group –COOH,

which is always attached at the end of the carbon chain.

Naming Carboxylic Acids:

  • Count the number of atoms in the longest carbon chain – this gives the base name.
  • Take off the –e suffix and replace it with –oic acid.

Example:

ethane  ethanoic acid

  • Suffix: -oic acid
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An acid chloride is similar to a carboxylic acid. The -OH group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a chlorine atom.

Naming Acid Chlorides:

  • Count the number of carbon atoms – this is the base name.
  • Take off the –e ending and add -oyl chloride.

Example:

ethane  ethanoyl chloride

  • Suffix: -oyl chloride
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Acid anhydrides are organic compounds that have two acyl groups bound to the same oxygen atom.

Naming acid anhydrides:

  • Take the name of the parent acid – the first word of this is your base name.
  • Replace the word ‘acid’ with the word ‘anhydride’.

Example:

Ethanoic acid  ethanoic anhydride

  • Suffix: -oic anhydride
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Functional group - RCOOR

Butyl methanoate

The first word refers to the length of the carbon chain to the right of the functional group.

This is then followed by an ‘oate’ depending on the number of carbons in and to the left of the functional group e.g. ethanoate = two carbons.

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Functional Group – RCONH2

The beginning of the name refers to the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

Then the suffix ‘amide’ follows.

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Amines are derivatives of ammonia where one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule have been replaced by alkyl or aryl groups. They can be primary amines, secondary amines and tertiary amines depending on the number of carbons attached to the nitrogen.

Naming Amines:

Methylpropylamine 2-aminopentane

(because the NH2 group comes from

the 2nd carbon).

The alkyl groups are listed alphabetically in the name.

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Functional Group – C N

1-butanenitrile

2-methyl,1-propanenitrile

The beginning of the name refers to the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

However if there are any methyl or ethyl groups etc. then this will come before anything else.

The suffix of the name is ‘nitrile’ due to the carbon, nitrogen triple bond.

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Functional Group - tthebenzene ring.

The beginning of the name refers to the number of carbons present including any methyl groups.

The suffix of the name is almost always ‘benzene.’

However the benzene ring is named as a phenyl group when it is a substituent.

1-methyl,2-ethylbenzene

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