Air pollution and health ulaanbaatar city of mongolia
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Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia. NAGNIIN SAIJAA, Prof, Director of Environmental health and Human Ecology Center, PHI, Mongolia ISES-ISEE 2010 28 Aug-1 September COEX Convention Center, Seoul, Korea. Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia. Background

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Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia

NAGNIIN SAIJAA,

Prof, Director of Environmental health and Human Ecology Center, PHI, Mongolia

ISES-ISEE 2010

28 Aug-1 September

COEX Convention Center, Seoul, Korea


Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia

  • Background

  • Over a million people permanently reside in Ulaanbaatar, although it covers only 0.3 percent of the country’s total territory.


THE MAIN SOURCES OF ULAANBAATAR AIR POLLUTION

  • Heat-and-Power Plants 2, 3, 4 (3)

  • Low-pressure, small and middle-scale steam stoves and boilers (nearly 1,200)

  • Ger and household heating stoves

    (over 160,000)

  • Automobiles, vehicles, street loudspeakers and some industries that produce noise and electromagnetic waves as well as communication technology antennae .


FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ULAANBAATAR’S AIR POLLUION

  • The main factor contributing to Ulaanbaatar’s air pollution is inefficient and poor city planning for the geographic location of housing, industry, trade services and Ger areas.

  • The city of Ulaanbaatar is surrounded by high mountains from its four sides.

  • During the wintertime, inverse cyclone flows come to Mongolia from Central Asia, causing a temperature inversion to form in Ulaanbaatar’s atmosphere, and due to this temperature inversion, dispersion of air pollutants and substances is slowed-down.


THE MAIN SOURCES OF ULAANBAATAR AIR POLLUTION

  • An air pollution assessment of emissions from linear and mobile sources, and focally-stationed, concentrated pollution in Ger areas, estimates that the city’s “P” index is at P=3.78 using the formula (P=√∑K2), or at “mild level” pollution.


The Capital City Population Growth, years 1956 – 2007


SURVEY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

  • The goals of the survey are to define Ulaanbaatar city’s air pollution level, determine the correlation between air pollution and morbidity & mortality rates from respiratory diseases among the population, and develop recommendations for air pollution-related disease control and prevention, and air pollution reduction.

  • The main objectives to reach the survey goals are as follows:

  • To define, study and assess Ulaanbaatar city’s air pollution level over the past 5 years.

  • To review and analyze the previous studies and surveys done on health impact assessment of air pollution.

  • Determine the correlation between morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases among the population of Ulaanbaatar city and air pollution.

  • Develop recommendations for air pollution-related disease control and prevention, and air pollution reduction


SURVEY METHODOLOGY

  • Assessment and conclusions will be developed on the basis of data processing and analysis of 2004-2008 statistical data on morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases among the population of Ulaanbaatar city and data on the most common air pollutants; sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter of different sizes, and data on meteorological measurements using appropriate methodology.


SURVEY RESULTS

  • Ulaanbaatar air pollution trends (for the past 5 years):

  • As Ulaanbaatar population numbers increase, the city’s air pollution and morbidity among the population increase respectively in recent years.

  • According to the measuring results of 4 air quality monitoring stations in Ulaanbaatar, the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) increased by 1.39 μg/м3±10.9 or 9.9 percent and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), by 4.49 μg/м3±6.9 or by 13.46 percent.


Average concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere


Monthly mean concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 2007-2008.


Annual average concentration of sulfur dioxide and the morbidity rate of respiratory diseases per 10,000 population


Results

  • A direct, modest correlation between the morbidity of respiratory diseases and sulfur dioxide (R=0.39, p=0.002), or 15.6 percent association, has been determined by using multi-parameter linear regression.

  • Likewise, a direct, modest relationship between the morbidity of respiratory diseases and nitrogen dioxide (R=0.32, p=0.001) or 10.8 percent association, has been determined by using multi-parameter linear regression


CONCLUSIONS

  • Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar city has increased every year for the past 5 years and showed a significant increase (1.39 μg/м3 - 4.49 μg/м3) from 2004 to 2008.

  • The present survey shows that the air pollution level of Ulaanbaatar city is “severely polluted” with the “P” index of Р=10.78, when the “P” index is estimated for the city as a whole rather than for individual districts.


CONCLUSIONS

  • In Ulaanbaatar, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in ambient air increases during the winter exceeding the MNS 4585:2007 standard requirement by 3.29±4.12 – 21.37±4.01 μg/м3, and although the concentration of nitrogen dioxide also increases in winter and spring months, it still meets the standard requirements MNS 4585:2007.

  • The mortality rate of respiratory diseases increases when the concentration of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter in ambient air increases.

  • Between 2004 and 2008, the morbidity rate of respiratory diseases increased by 44.9 percent. There is a direct correlation between the common air pollutants and the morbidity rate of respiratory diseases among the population. (Rxy=0.73, p<0.001)


RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Improve city planning, management, and construction that meets sanitation and ecological standard requirements, and the implementation of existing mandates

  • Establish 8 or 9 small-scale factories for producing improved, semi-coke coal in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar Ger areas (the project has been developed and requires Tgs 8 billion worth of funding)


RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Introduce and utilize dispersion systems and devices as well as high-technology meteorological equipment (including sun concentrator) in the wintertime, when opposite cyclone and temperature inversions are formed in Ulaanbaatar and involve professional organizations and specialists.


THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION


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