Air pollution and health ulaanbaatar city of mongolia
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Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia. NAGNIIN SAIJAA, Prof, Director of Environmental health and Human Ecology Center, PHI, Mongolia ISES-ISEE 2010 28 Aug-1 September COEX Convention Center, Seoul, Korea. Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia. Background

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Air pollution and health ulaanbaatar city of mongolia

Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia

NAGNIIN SAIJAA,

Prof, Director of Environmental health and Human Ecology Center, PHI, Mongolia

ISES-ISEE 2010

28 Aug-1 September

COEX Convention Center, Seoul, Korea


Air pollution and health ulaanbaatar city of mongolia1

Air pollution and Health Ulaanbaatar city of Mongolia

  • Background

  • Over a million people permanently reside in Ulaanbaatar, although it covers only 0.3 percent of the country’s total territory.


The main sources of ulaanbaatar air pollution

THE MAIN SOURCES OF ULAANBAATAR AIR POLLUTION

  • Heat-and-Power Plants 2, 3, 4 (3)

  • Low-pressure, small and middle-scale steam stoves and boilers (nearly 1,200)

  • Ger and household heating stoves

    (over 160,000)

  • Automobiles, vehicles, street loudspeakers and some industries that produce noise and electromagnetic waves as well as communication technology antennae .


Factors contributing to ulaanbaatar s air polluion

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ULAANBAATAR’S AIR POLLUION

  • The main factor contributing to Ulaanbaatar’s air pollution is inefficient and poor city planning for the geographic location of housing, industry, trade services and Ger areas.

  • The city of Ulaanbaatar is surrounded by high mountains from its four sides.

  • During the wintertime, inverse cyclone flows come to Mongolia from Central Asia, causing a temperature inversion to form in Ulaanbaatar’s atmosphere, and due to this temperature inversion, dispersion of air pollutants and substances is slowed-down.


The main sources of ulaanbaatar air pollution1

THE MAIN SOURCES OF ULAANBAATAR AIR POLLUTION

  • An air pollution assessment of emissions from linear and mobile sources, and focally-stationed, concentrated pollution in Ger areas, estimates that the city’s “P” index is at P=3.78 using the formula (P=√∑K2), or at “mild level” pollution.


The capital city population growth years 1956 2007

The Capital City Population Growth, years 1956 – 2007


Survey goals and objectives

SURVEY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

  • The goals of the survey are to define Ulaanbaatar city’s air pollution level, determine the correlation between air pollution and morbidity & mortality rates from respiratory diseases among the population, and develop recommendations for air pollution-related disease control and prevention, and air pollution reduction.

  • The main objectives to reach the survey goals are as follows:

  • To define, study and assess Ulaanbaatar city’s air pollution level over the past 5 years.

  • To review and analyze the previous studies and surveys done on health impact assessment of air pollution.

  • Determine the correlation between morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases among the population of Ulaanbaatar city and air pollution.

  • Develop recommendations for air pollution-related disease control and prevention, and air pollution reduction


Survey methodology

SURVEY METHODOLOGY

  • Assessment and conclusions will be developed on the basis of data processing and analysis of 2004-2008 statistical data on morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases among the population of Ulaanbaatar city and data on the most common air pollutants; sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter of different sizes, and data on meteorological measurements using appropriate methodology.


Survey results

SURVEY RESULTS

  • Ulaanbaatar air pollution trends (for the past 5 years):

  • As Ulaanbaatar population numbers increase, the city’s air pollution and morbidity among the population increase respectively in recent years.

  • According to the measuring results of 4 air quality monitoring stations in Ulaanbaatar, the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) increased by 1.39 μg/м3±10.9 or 9.9 percent and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), by 4.49 μg/м3±6.9 or by 13.46 percent.


Average concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere

Average concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere


Monthly mean concentration of particulate matter pm10 and pm2 5 2007 2008

Monthly mean concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 2007-2008.


Air pollution and health ulaanbaatar city of mongolia

Annual average concentration of sulfur dioxide and the morbidity rate of respiratory diseases per 10,000 population


Results

Results

  • A direct, modest correlation between the morbidity of respiratory diseases and sulfur dioxide (R=0.39, p=0.002), or 15.6 percent association, has been determined by using multi-parameter linear regression.

  • Likewise, a direct, modest relationship between the morbidity of respiratory diseases and nitrogen dioxide (R=0.32, p=0.001) or 10.8 percent association, has been determined by using multi-parameter linear regression


Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

  • Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar city has increased every year for the past 5 years and showed a significant increase (1.39 μg/м3 - 4.49 μg/м3) from 2004 to 2008.

  • The present survey shows that the air pollution level of Ulaanbaatar city is “severely polluted” with the “P” index of Р=10.78, when the “P” index is estimated for the city as a whole rather than for individual districts.


Conclusions1

CONCLUSIONS

  • In Ulaanbaatar, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in ambient air increases during the winter exceeding the MNS 4585:2007 standard requirement by 3.29±4.12 – 21.37±4.01 μg/м3, and although the concentration of nitrogen dioxide also increases in winter and spring months, it still meets the standard requirements MNS 4585:2007.

  • The mortality rate of respiratory diseases increases when the concentration of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter in ambient air increases.

  • Between 2004 and 2008, the morbidity rate of respiratory diseases increased by 44.9 percent. There is a direct correlation between the common air pollutants and the morbidity rate of respiratory diseases among the population. (Rxy=0.73, p<0.001)


Recommendations

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Improve city planning, management, and construction that meets sanitation and ecological standard requirements, and the implementation of existing mandates

  • Establish 8 or 9 small-scale factories for producing improved, semi-coke coal in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar Ger areas (the project has been developed and requires Tgs 8 billion worth of funding)


Recommendations1

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Introduce and utilize dispersion systems and devices as well as high-technology meteorological equipment (including sun concentrator) in the wintertime, when opposite cyclone and temperature inversions are formed in Ulaanbaatar and involve professional organizations and specialists.


Thank you for attention

THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION


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