Respiratory issues
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Respiratory Issues. What effects our Respiratory System?. Coughs and Colds. Many different organisms can cause the common cold and cough and the symptoms often feel the same All conditions are infections of the upper respiratory tract, they affect breathing passages above the lungs.

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Respiratory Issues

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Respiratory issues

Respiratory Issues

What effects our Respiratory System?


Coughs and colds

Coughs and Colds

  • Many different organisms can cause the common cold and cough and the symptoms often feel the same

  • All conditions are infections of the upper respiratory tract, they affect breathing passages above the lungs


Coughs and colds1

Coughs and Colds

  • Viruses are usually responsible for these types of illnesses

  • There are over a hundred different types of viruses that cause coughs and colds

  • Unfortunately these viruses cannot be destroyed by antibiotics

  • Bacteria, such as staphylococcus will respond to drugs


Coughs and colds2

Coughs and Colds

  • Colds usually start with a virus attack—a fever / inflammation of the nose lining and air-filled spaces called sinuses may become blocked or infected

  • Nasal linings produce lots of mucus, fill up and cause uncomfortable blockage of sinuses

  • Bacteria may also attack inflamed areas causing painful sinuses, coughing and sore throats


Coughs and colds3

Coughs and Colds

  • Sneezing occurs as the body tries to get rid of irritation in air passages

  • A fine spray of mucus and tiny water droplets packed with infectious particles is produced

  • This sneeze spray may be shot out of the mouth at speeds of up to 100mph and travel as far as 6 ft. away from you


Coughs and colds4

Coughs and Colds

  • Sneeze spray can be easily inhaled by another person, thereby spreading the infection

  • PLEASE, ALWAYS SNEEZE INTO THE CROOK OF YOUR ARM!

  • Wash your hands regularly too (with soap and warm water please, for the duration of a short song), particularly after blowing your nose


Strep

Strep

  • The throat/pharynx may become infected with streptococcus bacteria

  • Strep causes severe sore throats

  • Tonsilitis (inflamed tonsils)

  • Pharyngitis (inflammation of the back of the mouth)


Influenza

Influenza

  • Contagious virus

  • Characterized by inflammation of the respiratory tract

  • Fever

  • Muscle pain


Pertusis

Pertusis

  • Whooping Cough

  • Cold like symptoms

  • Highly contagious, spread through coughing and sneezing

  • May lead to pneumonia

  • Nasal or throat culture,Swab test

  • Antibiotic Treatment


Pneumonia

Pneumonia

  • Pneumonia is a severe inflammation of the lungs

  • The thin tissue around one’s air sacs (alveoli) becomes badly swollen

  • These spaces may also become filled with fluid

  • Pneumonia may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or by inhaling foreign matter


Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

  • TB, Coughing Plague

  • Infectious disease

  • Characterized by the formation of tubercles in lung tissue


Asthma

Asthma

  • Comes from the Greek verb “ to pant or to breath hard”

  • Asthma is a chronic disease which millions of children and adults in the U.S. have

  • Many people with Asthma have allergies which cause symptoms such as a stuffy nose or rashes


Asthma1

Asthma

  • People with Asthma may make wheezing or whistling sounds because the air they breathe is forced through a narrow passage

  • Asthmatics may have trouble breathing and become hoarse from frequent coughing spells

  • Asthmatics may breathe in short, rapid breaths and experience occasional chest tightness


Asthma2

Asthma

  • Those with Asthma or allergies may not be able to smell or taste well

  • Infants who have an asthma flare up may not suck or drink strongly, breathe rapidly or have a blue tinge to their skin


Asthma3

Asthma

  • Most respiratory systems are incredibly efficient breathing machines

  • However, people who have Asthma have respiratory systems that do not always function quite right


Asthma4

Asthma

  • Tobacco, pollen or other substances such as dust mites or animal dander, irritates the membranes lining the the bronchial tubes

  • Membranes become red and swollen, narrowing the airways which lead into the lungs

  • Muscles in the bronchial tubes tighten up and make the airway even smaller


Asthma5

Asthma

  • Asthmatics can’t always breathe in enough oxygen or exhale enough CO2

  • People with Asthma must work extra hard to breathe at times

  • Secondhand smoke is particularly dangerous for those with Asthma

  • Health Watch Susan Dudley Gold, p.9 view of persons lungs during an Asthma attack


Cancer

Cancer

  • Cancer occurs when cells in the body begin to grow out of control.

  • Cells keep growing in a disorderly way and crowd out normal cells

  • There are many different kinds of cancer but they all have this out-of-control cell growth in common


Lung cancer

Lung Cancer

  • Most Lung Cancers start in lining of the bronchi

  • Sometimes they begin in the trachea, brochioles or alveoli

  • Lung cancer often takes many years to develop


Lung cancer1

Lung Cancer

  • Leading cause of cancer death for Men and Women with average age of 60

  • In 2004, there were approximately 173, 770 new cases of cancer in the U.S.

  • And, approximately 160,440 people will die of the disease


Lung cancer2

Lung Cancer

  • There may be areas of pre-cancerous changes

  • If there are not masses or tumors they cannot be detected by x-ray and do not necessarily cause symptoms

  • Changes can be found by special testing of cells in the lining of the airways of lungs damaged by smoke


Lung cancer3

Lung Cancer

  • Lung Cancer is so deadly because it often spreads before it is found

  • 2 main types:

    SCLC-small cell lung cancer

    NSCLC- non-small cell lung cancer

  • 3 subtypes:

    Squamous cell carcinoma – usually linked to smoking history, tend to be found centrally, near a bronchus


Lung cancer4

Lung Cancer

  • Adenocarcinoma – usually found in the outer region of the lung

  • Large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma – can appear in any part of the lung and tends to grow and spread quickly, resulting in poor diagnosis

  • Carcinoid tumors – can also occur in the lungs, they are slow growing and can often be cured by surgery


Resources

Resources

  • American Lung Association, www.lungusa.org

  • American Cancer Society, www.cancer.org

  • Epidemic, Eyewitness series

  • Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, www.aafa.org


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