Reflection of Culture in Art. How does art reflect society?. Attempts to criticize Attempts to magnify an issue or individual Attempts to distract from other issues of the day Attempts to define what culture is or what an era is
Romanticism was a reaction to the devastation that had occurred in Europe from 1789-1815.
Emphasis across the board was on nature, beauty, and “the moment”
All forms of art attempted to elicit an emotional response – although that response was generally anti-logic.
Creation of art as the “exalted one”
Romanticizing of Greek, Roman, and “Primitive” artsRomanticism – Circa 1830’s
Term means “End of the Century” movement which emphasized the free movement of hands with brush strokes. It emphasized the expression of mood with color – realism is important, but less so than previous endeavors. Nature a frequent subject of material. Key individuals – JWW Turner (USA), Francisco Goya (Sp), William Blake (EN)
Was used mostly in France and spread to the rest of Europe.
Defined the era of cultural revelry around the turn of the century.
Victorian Era ideals dominated England, most of Europe.
As a society very pleased with self
Looking forward – not looking back.
Optimism throughout society – no wars, advancement in science, development of psychology.
Imperialism spreading through world – Europe’s moral superiority.Fin de Siècle – 1890’s
That sense of hopefulness is gone and replaced by pessimism, especially with industry and the established leadership.
People are less likely to feel hopeful about life and therefore more likely to feel disjointed
Expressionism develops out of this – a reaction to positivism and impressionism where distress and Nietzsche's ideals of Dionysian chaos exist. Bold, lacking true form, and without perspective.
This concept could also be applied to how people lived in Germany during the Weimar years - Horror
Also see the development of “anti-art”, Dadaism.Post WWI – 1920’s
Obviously in this era – Cold War, Nuclear Destruction and Vietnam are the predominant issues in mainstream culture. As a response to this a counter-culture movement develops which both fed into and was developed by art. The uniformity of the 1950’s and the development of a hippie culture led to many different reflections in the arts.
By the middle of the 1970’s, the global oil crisis, stagflation, and the malaise of Vietnam had soured most Western nations, especially the US.1960’s and 1970’s – Post Structuralism