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Unit 1: Vocabulary. By: Mr. Shew. Your First Two Words. Theme. Metaphor. An analogy identifying one object with another and ascribing to the first object qualities of the second. A central idea. In non-fiction it could be the thesis.

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Unit 1 vocabulary

Unit 1: Vocabulary

By: Mr. Shew

Your first two words
Your First Two Words



An analogy identifying one object with another and ascribing to the first object qualities of the second.

  • A central idea.

  • In non-fiction it could be the thesis.

  • In poems, fiction, and drama it is an abstract concept that is made concrete through a representation.

Your turn
Your Turn

  • Take the next five minutes to either make up or draw your own metaphors.


  • Comparing two unlike things using like or as.

  • As far as I can see, they won’t make it for dinner.


  • He runs like the wind!

    • Simile


  • The person or persons telling the story

  • Who ever is talking in the story

  • NOT the author


  • An over exaggeration.

  • I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse.

  • It’s raining cats and dogs.

  • He’s a bean pole.


  • Giving human traits or characteristics to something that isn’t human.

  • The pants were so dirty, they got up and walked out of the room.

  • If my dog could talk, she’d say, “Shut up already.”


  • The over arching problem in the story.

  • What motivates the characters towards action.

  • It drives the plot.

  • Without conflict there is no story.


  • Alliteration is the repetition of a particular sound in a series of words or phrases.

  • I saw Susie sitting in a shoe shine shop. Where she sits she shines, and where she shines she sits.


  • Anything that refers to the senses in some way

  • This includes sight, sound, taste, seeing, and touch words

  • Figurative language also counts in this category

  • Anything the author writes that leaves a picture in your head or appeals to your senses in some way


  • The cadence of a poem or the flow of a story

  • Poets use puncuation, line breaks, and stanzas and to create a rhythm to their work

    • Think song writers

    • CDs usually follow an up and down rhythm

  • Novelists follow a model more like a building crescendo

    • The lead up to the climax is the crescendo, then it falls of


  • The point/purpose of a work

  • It must have a beginning, middle, and end according to Aristotle.

    • Stories that break the rules of plot are usually a hit with critics but regular people hate the,

Plot elements freitag s pyramid
Plot Elements/ Freitag’s Pyramid

  • Exposition: The beginning of the work

    • The reader gets information they need to understand and relate to the story

  • Rising Action

    • When the story finally begins to take place

    • The conflict is introduced and the story begins to form

  • Climax

    • The critical moment when the conflict of the story comes to a head

    • Something that brings about the end of the story

    • A single moment or decision that decides the ending

Plot elements cont
Plot Elements Cont

  • Falling Action

    • Everything that happens after the climax before the revolution

    • Deals with the consequences of the climax and brings about the resolution

    • Loose ends are tied up

  • Resolution

    • Everything is solved for the best or worst


  • Refers to everything that makes up a person in a work

  • The intangible things that make characters who they are

Character characterization
Character/ Characterization



The author directly tells the reader something about the character

“The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.”

  • The process by which the personality of a fictitious character is revealed through the character’s speech, actions, appearance, interactions with other characters, etc…


  • The reader is left to infer what type of person the character is based on the collected information from reading.

  • Any character traits not directly stated by the author.

Point of view
Point of View

  • The manner in which the story is told.

  • There are three types of POV

    • 1st person

    • 2nd person

    • 3rd Person

  • Each of these is broken into another two categories

    • Omniscient

    • Limited

  • POV can be broken down even more, but for our purposes this is all you’ll be tested on.

Pov styles
POV Styles

  • 1st Person

    • The story is told using the I, me, my pronouns.

    • Usually the main character is telling the events as they happened to them.

  • 3rd Person

    • This uses indirect pronouns such as he, she, they, and them

    • The main characters and narrator are usual separate people

Pov categories
POV Categories

  • Limited

    • The reader only sees the thoughts of one character in the story or one at a time.

    • Limited view of the inner thoughts of characters.

  • Omniscient

    • The narrator is all knowing and all seeing

    • The reader sees the thoughts of any and all characters

Do not go gently into that good night
“Do Not Go Gently into That Good Night”

  • What is the theme of this poem? What is the purpose?

  • How does the author’s word choices effect the overall feel of the poem?

  • What feelings does this poem inspire in you?

  • Why do you think the author repeats the same final line in stanza’s 1, 3, 4, 5?

  • What is the good night? How is it a pun/play on words?

  • Identify at least two metaphors for death or dying in the poem.

  • What is the rhyme scheme of this poem? Does it have any effect on the poem?