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Topic: The Nervous System. Aim : What is the function of the nervous system? Do Now : Make a K-W-L Chart. Fill in the first two columns. What is the function of the Nervous System?. Receive and send information about activities within the body

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Topic: The Nervous System

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Topic: The Nervous System

Aim: What is the function of the nervous system?

Do Now: Make a K-W-L Chart. Fill in the first two columns.


What is the function of the Nervous System?

  • Receive and send information about activities within the body

  • Monitor and respond to changes in the environment

  • Changes in the environment that cause a response are called STIMULI (STIMULUS – singular)

  • Nervous system tells other parts of the body what to do

  • Interpret (make sense of) various information


What is the stimulus? What is the response?

1.An insect flies toward your eye and you blink to avoid danger.

  • Flying insect = stimulus

  • Blinking = response

    2.You put your hand on a hot stove and quickly remove it.

  • Hot stove (heat) = stimulus

  • Removing your hand from the stove = response

  • A child runs into the street while you’re driving a car, and you slam on the brakes.

  • Child running in the street = stimulus

  • Slamming on the brakes = response


What controls a response?

  • Responses are a result of nerve impulses

  • An IMPULSE is a message sent by a neuron (nerve cell)

  • Responses to stimuli can be both voluntary or involuntary


Topic: The Nervous System

Aim: What is a neuron?

Do Now: Identify the stimulus and response in the following scenario: You’re sleeping. The alarm clock buzzes and you awaken.


What structures are part of the nervous system?

1.Neurons: nerve cells

2.Spinal cord

3.Brain


Topic: The Nervous System

Aim: What is a reflex arc?

Do Now: Draw and label a neuron.


Topic: The Nervous System

Aim: What is a reflex arc?

Do Now: Give an example of a receptor.


Describe a Neuron.

  • Neurons can never be replaced

  • Neurons contain:

  • Cell body (1)

  • Dendrites (2)

  • Nucleus (3)

  • Axon (4)

  • Axon terminals (5)

3

4

5


A Neuron

Dendrites: branches at the beginning of a neuron; RECEIVEIMPULSES and carry messages TO the cell body

Nucleus: control center

Axon Terminals: branches at the end of the neuron that pass IMPULSES (messages) on to dendrites of other neurons

Cell body: largest part of the neuron; contains the nucleus.

Axon: long tail-like fiber; Carries IMPULSES (messages) AWAY from cell body to the end of the neuron


How many different types of neurons are in the body?

  • Three different types:

    • Sensory neurons

    • Interneurons

    • Motor neurons


What are receptors and sensory neurons?

  • Receptor cells: receive information from surroundings

  • Impulses begin at receptors

  • Sense organs are receptors

    • Eyes– Nose

    • Ears– Skin

    • Tongue

  • Messages travel from receptors to the spinal cord and brain through SENSORY NEURONS


What are interneurons?

  • Interneurons are found in the spinal cord and brain

  • Connect sensory neurons to motor neurons


What are motor neurons?

  • Carry impulses from interneurons (in brain and spinal cord) to EFFECTORS

  • EFFECTORS: muscles or glands that carry out a response


Topic: The Nervous System

Aim: What is a synapse?

Do Now: Substitute words for numbers in the following reflex arc:

Stimulus→1 →2 →3 →4 →5 →Response


Describe the path of a nerve impulse.

  • Reflex arc = path of an impulse

  • stimulus → receptor → sensory neuron → interneuron → motor neuron → effector → response

interneuron


A reflex arc


How does an impulse get from one neuron to another neuron?

  • Impulses travel from one neuron to another neuron in the form of an ELECTRICAL and CHEMICAL SIGNAL

  • Electrical impulses enter neurons at the dendrites, to cell body, through the axons, and out the end of the axon terminal


What is a Synapse?

  • Tiny gap between two neurons

  • Nerve impulse “jumps” the gap (synapse) between two neurons with a CHEMICAL SIGNAL

  • Chemical signal called a NEUROTRANSMITTER carries the impulse from one neuron to another


Topic: The nervous system

AIM: What are the two divisions of the nervous system?

Do Now:

1. Messages (impulses) are sent in the form of __________ and ___________ signals across neurons.

Describe the path of an impulse along one neuron.


Topic: The nervous system

AIM: What are the two divisions of the nervous system?

Do Now:

Describe the path of an impulse along one neuron.


How many divisions does the nervous system have?

  • Two divisions:

    • Central nervous system

    • Peripheral nervous system

  • Central nervous system is the control center of the body. It contains the SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN

  • Peripheral nervous system is a NETWORK OF NERVES that branch out from the central nervous system to the organs of your body


Topic: The nervous system

Aim: What are the three parts of the brain?

Do Now: Starting from the stimulus and ending with a response, describe the reflex arc in yesterday’s lab.


cerebrum

medulla

cerebellum

The central nervous systemDescribe the brain.

  • The brain consists of three areas:

    • Cerebrum

    • Cerebellum

    • Medulla


Describe the cerebrum.

  • Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It has wrinkled grooves and looks like a walnut.

  • Divided into two halves (right and left)


Topic: The nervous system

AIM: What is the peripheral nervous system?

Do Now: What are the three parts of the brain?


Memory

Thinking

Speech

The 5 senses

Emotional thought

All voluntary actions

Ex: Walking, running, jumping

What does the cerebrum control?


Describe the cerebellum. What does it control?

  • Located under the cerebrum

  • Second largest part of brain

  • Controls:

    • Balance

    • Movement (coordination)


medulla

Describe the medulla. What does it control?

  • Located below the cerebellum

  • Connects the brain to the spinal cord

  • Controls involuntary actions

    • Breathing

    • heartbeat


Describe the spinal cord. What does it control?

  • Protected by vertebrae in the spinal column

  • Connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system

  • Carries impulses to and from the brain

  • Controls quick, automatic, and simple responses called REFLEXES


What is the Peripheral Nervous System?

  • Link between the central nervous system and the rest of the body

  • Consists of branching nerves throughout the body

  • Divided into two divisions

    • Autonomic

    • Somatic


How do the autonomic and somatic divisions of the peripheral nervous system differ?

  • Autonomic controls involuntary functions

  • Somatic controls voluntary

    functions


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