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Chapter 7 Notes. The Twenties 1919-1929. Chapter 7 Notes. Section 1 A Booming Economy. Focus Question: How did the booming economy of the 1920’s lead to changes in American life?. The Automobile Drives Prosperity.

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Chapter 7 notes

Chapter 7 Notes

The Twenties

1919-1929


Chapter 7 notes1

Chapter 7 Notes

Section 1

A Booming Economy


Focus Question: How did the booming economy of the 1920’s lead to changes in American life?

The Automobile Drives Prosperity

  • Henry Ford introduced a series of methods and ideas that revolutionized production, wages, working conditions, and daily life.









How did Henry Ford increase the production and sale of automobiles?

He put his cars on moving assembly lines and realized that if workers made more money and had more leisure time, they would become potential customers for his automobiles.


A Bustling Economy automobiles?

  • Advertising and credit build a consumer culture.

  • Magazine, newspaper, and radio ads focused on the desires and fears of Americans more on what people really needed.

  • Installment buying “Buy now and pay later”



  • Investors ignored financial risks and bought stock on margin.

  • Buying on Margin – A buyer would borrow money from a broker to buy a stock and pay the broker back over a period of months.

  • A buyer only had to pay as little as 10 percent of the stock price up front to a broker.

  • Buyers gambled that they would be able to sell the stock at a profit before the loan came due.


How did buying on margin allow more people to invest in the stock market?

A buyer only had to pay as little as 10 percent of the stock price up front to a broker.


Cities, Suburbs, and Country stock market?

  • The movement of people was toward the cities.



  • As the century progressed, suburbs drained people and resources from the cities.

  • Suburbs catered to middle and upper class residents and tended to be more conservative and Republican.

  • Meanwhile, the inner cities at the heart of older urban areas began a slow but steady decline.



What impact did the development of the suburbs have on American society?

As the century progressed, suburbs drained people and resources from the cities.


Chapter 7 notes2

Chapter 7 Notes American society?

Section 2

The Business of Government


Focus Question: How did domestic and foreign policy change direction under Harding and Coolidge?

The Harding Administration

  • In 1920, Warren G. Harding was elected President on a pledge of a “return to normalcy”.


  • Andrew Mellon direction under Harding and Coolidge? – A wealthy banker who was Secretary of the Treasury.

  • He favored low taxes on individuals and corporations and helped to reduce the federal budget from $18 billion to $3 billion.


  • Harding was a kind a likable man but not especially intelligent.

  • He trusted his friends to make decisions for him.

  • Unfortunately, his friends were greedy, small minded men who saw government service as a chance to get rich at the expense of the citizens.



  • The corruption just like the George W. Bush administration.Teapot Dome Scandal was the most notorious.

  • Albert Fall transferred oil reserves from control of the Navy to his control as Secretary of Interior. He then leased the properties to private oilmen in return for bribes.



What were the causes and effects of the Teapot Dome scandal?

Albert Fall transferred oil reserves from control of the Navy to his control as Secretary of Interior. He then leased the properties to private oilmen in return for bribes. After a Senate investigation, the oil reserves were returned to the government and Fall served a year in jail.


Coolidge Prosperity

  • Calvin Coolidge was in many ways the opposite of Harding.

  • He was quiet, honest, and frugal.

  • He continued the policies of low taxes, reducing the national debt, and trimming the federal budget.



What policies did Calvin Coolidge favor to support economic growth?

He continued the policies of low taxes, reducing the national debt, and trimming the federal budget.


America’s Role in the World growth?

  • World leaders agreed that they should seek ways to avoid war.

  • The Washington Naval Disarmament Conference raised hopes that nations could solve disagreements without resorting to war.

  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact to “outlaw” war “as an instrument of national policy” was ratified by 62 nations, then quickly ignored.


  • The growth? Dawes Plan arranged U.S. loans to Germany so that it could pay reparations to England and France so that they could pay back war loans to the United States.


How did the United States support world peace efforts during the 1920’s?

The Washington Naval Disarmament Conference and the Kellogg-Briand Pact.


Chapter 7 notes3

Chapter 7 Notes the 1920’s?

Section 3

Social and Cultural Tensions


Focus Question: How did Americans differ on major social and cultural issues?

Traditionalism and Modernism Clash

  • The 1920 census revealed, for the first time ever, that more people lived in the cities than the country.


  • Urban Americans were cultural issues?Modernists who showed an openness toward social change, enjoyed new consumer products, and emphasized science and secular values.


  • Rural Americans were cultural issues?Traditionalists who were suspicious of social change, missed out on many new consumer products, and emphasized established religious values.




  • Fundamentalists and modernists clashed in the that every word in the Bible was literally true, and that the answer to every important moral and scientific question could be found in the Bible. Scopes Trial of 1925 also known as the “Monkey Trial”



  • Clarence Darrow Darwin’s theory of evolution in public schools. was the lawyer who defended John Scopes and William Jennings Bryan served as an expert for the prosecution.




How did the Scopes Trial illustrate the urban-rural split in the 1920’s?

Modernist supported Darrow and Traditionalists supported Bryan.


Restricting Immigration the 1920’s?

  • 1914 Congress passed a law forbidding immigrants who could not read and write in their own language.

  • 1921 Emergency Quota Act

  • 1924 National Origins Act



How did new laws change U.S. immigration policy in the 1920s?

Congress passed laws restricting immigration from southern and eastern Europe.


The New Ku Klux Klan 1920s?

  • 1915 The KKK was reformed in Stone Mountain Georgia to target not just African Americans but also Jews, Catholics, and immigrants.

  • Members of the KKK were afraid of diversity and change and used violence achieve their goals.




How did the goals of the new Ku Klux Klan differ from the old Klan?

They targeted not just African Americans but also Jews, Catholics, and immigrants.


Prohibition and Crime old Klan?

  • 1919 the 18th Amendment forbade the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol illegal.


  • The old Klan? Volstead Act was a law that officially enforced the 18th Amendment.

  • Prohibition did not stop people from drinking alcohol.

  • People made their own alcohol or smuggled it in from other countries.

  • Bootleggers sold illegal alcohol to consumers



Al Capone


What were the effects of the 18 criminal of the prohibition era.th Amendment and the Volstead act?

The growth of organized crime in America.


Chapter 7 notes4

Chapter 7 Notes criminal of the prohibition era.

Section 4

A New Mass Culture


Focus Question: How did the new mass culture reflect technological and social changes?

New Trends in Popular Culture

  • Americans enjoyed more leisure time

  • The average work week fell

  • 1850 – 70hrs

  • 1910 – 55hrs

  • 1930 – 45hrs




  • Comedian in Hollywood California.Charlie Chaplin was the most popular silent film star as was Douglas Fairbanks


Rudolph Valentino and VilmaBanky in the Son of the Sheik (1926)



An Age of Heroes culture as people across the country listened to the same songs, learned the same dances, and shared the same popular culture.

  • The increase in newspaper readership and the rise of radio coverage won national fans for local sports heroes.

  • Athletic heroes insured Americans that people were capable of great feats and lofty dreams.

Jim Thorpe


  • Babe Ruth culture as people across the country listened to the same songs, learned the same dances, and shared the same popular culture.was one of the leading sports heroes known as the home run king.


  • In May of 1927 culture as people across the country listened to the same songs, learned the same dances, and shared the same popular culture.Charles Lindbergh became the first person to fly 33 hours alone non-stop across the Atlantic ocean from New York to Paris.



How did the new mass media contribute to the popularity of heroes?

The increase in newspaper readership and the rise of radio coverage won national fans for local sports heroes.


Women Assume New Roles heroes?

  • The New Woman of the 1920’s rejected Victorian morality.

  • The New Woman was more liberated, wore shorter dresses, and assumed the same political and social rights as men.



  • In 1925 Nelly heroes? Tayloe Ross of Wyoming and Miriam Ferguson of Texas became the first women elected as their state’s governor.

Nelly Tayloe Ross

Miriam Ferguson



What political gains did American women make during the 1920’s?

In 1925 Nelly Tayloe Ross of Wyoming and Miriam Ferguson of Texas became the first women elected as their state’s governor.


Modernism in Art and Literature 1920’s?

  • The Arts reflect a mood of uncertainty as WWI called the notion of progress into question.

  • This pessimistic, skeptical world view sparked an artistic movement know as modernism.

  • The theories of Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud contributed to modernism.



  • Edward Hopper Chop Suey(1929)


  • Man Ray life and experimented with abstract styles and themes.Larmes (1932)


  • Joseph Stella life and experimented with abstract styles and themes.By Products Plants (1920)



  • Writers of the 1920’s were often referred to as the life and experimented with abstract styles and themes.“Lost Generation” because they had lost faith in traditional institutions.

  • They wrestled with the meaning of WWI and if life itself.

  • Some of the most distinguished American authors emerged in this period such as:

  • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway, Edith Wharton, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner, Gertrude Stein, Eugene O’Neill, and T.S. Eliot


  • F. Scott Fitzgerald life and experimented with abstract styles and themes. explored the reality of the American dream wealth, success, and emotional fulfillment.

  • The Great Gatsby (1925) was his most accomplished novel.


  • Ernest Hemmingway life and experimented with abstract styles and themes. felt betrayed by the American dream and even literary language itself.

  • He developed a style that was stripped of vague adjectives and adverbs that was concrete and powerful.


  • A Farewell to Arms life and experimented with abstract styles and themes.(1929) was his most accomplished novel.


What impact did World War I have on postwar American literature?

They had lost faith in traditional Institutions and wrestled with the meaning of WWI and of life itself which resulted in literary masterpieces.


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