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The Nervous System. What Is The Nervous System?. It is a communication system between the brain and the body. It controls your body’s emotions, movements, thinking, and behavior. The Nervous System is…. Made up of two major systems: Central Nervous System (CNS)

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what is the nervous system
What Is The Nervous System?
  • It is a communication system between the brain and the body.
  • It controls your body’s emotions, movements, thinking, and behavior.
the nervous system is
The Nervous System is…
  • Made up of two major systems:
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Peripheral Nervous System – Relays messages between the CNS and the rest of the body.
central nervous system cns
Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Consists of the brain and the spinal chord – enclosed in bone.
  • Every voluntary action involves the CNS.
    • Walking, Taking Notes, Throwing A Football
peripheral nervous system pns
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • Made up of nerve cells called neurons
  • Responsible for transmitting messages (electrical impulses) between the CNS and the body.
  • Made up of 2 major systems:
    • Somatic Nervous System
    • Autonomic Nervous System
  • 3 types of neurons:
    • Sensory Neurons – Pick up stimuli inside the body or in the world and sends signals INTO the brain.
    • Motor Neurons – Send OUT signals from the brain and spinal chord to the glands, muscles, and organs.
    • Interneurons – Connects neurons to one another.
  • 5 parts to a neuron:
    • Cell Body – Produces the energy for the cell.
    • Dendrites – Thin branch-like fibers that receive information from other neurons.
    • Axon – Tube-like extension that carries a signal away from the cell body.
    • Myelin Sheath – White fat cells that protect the axon and speeds of the transmission of signals.
    • Axon Terminals – Small branch-like fibers that send messages to other neurons.
neuron synapses
Neuron Synapses
  • Synapse – The space between the axon terminals and dendrites where signals are sent across using neurotransmitters.
  • Neurotransmitters – Chemicals released by the axon terminal that travel across the synapse to another neuron’s dendrites.
  • 3 Key Neurotransmitters:
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamine
    • Endorphins
  • Serotonin
    • Involved in mood control, appetite, and sleep
    • Low levels of serotonin are linked with depression and anxiety disorders.
  • Dopamine
    • Involved with movement and emotional arousal (alertness)
    • Deficiency in dopamine is linked with Parkinson Disease
    • Excess dopamine is linked to schizophrenia
    • Antipsychotic Drugs block dopamine receptors
    • Cocaine, nicotine & amphetamines increase dopamine activity
  • Endorphins
    • Regulates pain control and perception during stressful or traumatic events.
    • Also important in experiencing pleasure.
    • Can give a sort of “high” or euphoric feeling to the individual.
    • We can become addicted to endorphin causing feelings.
      • Ex. Acupuncture
      • Similar to opiate addiction (morphine, heroin, codeine)
2 parts to the peripheral nervous system
2 Parts To The Peripheral Nervous System
  • Somatic Nervous System
    • Controls the voluntary muscles & transmits sensory information the CNS.
  • Autonomic Nervous System
    • Controls the involuntary functions of the body
      • Ex. Heartbeat, Breathing, Digestion, Blood Pressure
    • Has two parts:
      • Sympathetic
      • Parasympathetic
2 parts to the pns
2 Parts To The PNS
  • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Prepares the body for stressful or threating situations.
    • Slows digestion, raises heart rate, raising blood pressure, sweating
    • “Fight Or Flight” Response
      • Stay and confront or turn and run
    • Sympathetic starts with “S” like Stress
2 parts to the pns1
2 Parts To The PNS
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Calming mechanism for the body.
      • Heart rate & blood pressure return to normal,
    • Acts to conserve & maintain the body’s energy resources.
    • Parasympathetic begins with a “P” just like Peace.