The nervous system
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The Nervous System. What Is The Nervous System?. It is a communication system between the brain and the body. It controls your body’s emotions, movements, thinking, and behavior. The Nervous System is…. Made up of two major systems: Central Nervous System (CNS)

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The Nervous System

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The nervous system

The Nervous System


What is the nervous system

What Is The Nervous System?

  • It is a communication system between the brain and the body.

  • It controls your body’s emotions, movements, thinking, and behavior.


The nervous system is

The Nervous System is…

  • Made up of two major systems:

    • Central Nervous System (CNS)

    • Peripheral Nervous System – Relays messages between the CNS and the rest of the body.


Central nervous system cns

Central Nervous System (CNS)

  • Consists of the brain and the spinal chord – enclosed in bone.

  • Every voluntary action involves the CNS.

    • Walking, Taking Notes, Throwing A Football


Peripheral nervous system pns

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • Made up of nerve cells called neurons

  • Responsible for transmitting messages (electrical impulses) between the CNS and the body.

  • Made up of 2 major systems:

    • Somatic Nervous System

    • Autonomic Nervous System


Neurons

Neurons

  • 3 types of neurons:

    • Sensory Neurons – Pick up stimuli inside the body or in the world and sends signals INTO the brain.

    • Motor Neurons – Send OUT signals from the brain and spinal chord to the glands, muscles, and organs.

    • Interneurons – Connects neurons to one another.


Neurons1

Neurons

  • 5 parts to a neuron:

    • Cell Body – Produces the energy for the cell.

    • Dendrites – Thin branch-like fibers that receive information from other neurons.

    • Axon – Tube-like extension that carries a signal away from the cell body.

    • Myelin Sheath – White fat cells that protect the axon and speeds of the transmission of signals.

    • Axon Terminals – Small branch-like fibers that send messages to other neurons.


Neuron structure

Neuron Structure


Neuron synapses

Neuron Synapses

  • Synapse – The space between the axon terminals and dendrites where signals are sent across using neurotransmitters.

  • Neurotransmitters – Chemicals released by the axon terminal that travel across the synapse to another neuron’s dendrites.

  • 3 Key Neurotransmitters:

    • Serotonin

    • Dopamine

    • Endorphins


Synaptic gap

Synaptic Gap


Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

  • Serotonin

    • Involved in mood control, appetite, and sleep

    • Low levels of serotonin are linked with depression and anxiety disorders.


Neurotransmitters1

Neurotransmitters

  • Dopamine

    • Involved with movement and emotional arousal (alertness)

    • Deficiency in dopamine is linked with Parkinson Disease

    • Excess dopamine is linked to schizophrenia

    • Antipsychotic Drugs block dopamine receptors

    • Cocaine, nicotine & amphetamines increase dopamine activity


Neurotransmitters2

Neurotransmitters

  • Endorphins

    • Regulates pain control and perception during stressful or traumatic events.

    • Also important in experiencing pleasure.

    • Can give a sort of “high” or euphoric feeling to the individual.

    • We can become addicted to endorphin causing feelings.

      • Ex. Acupuncture

      • Similar to opiate addiction (morphine, heroin, codeine)


2 parts to the peripheral nervous system

2 Parts To The Peripheral Nervous System

  • Somatic Nervous System

    • Controls the voluntary muscles & transmits sensory information the CNS.

  • Autonomic Nervous System

    • Controls the involuntary functions of the body

      • Ex. Heartbeat, Breathing, Digestion, Blood Pressure

    • Has two parts:

      • Sympathetic

      • Parasympathetic


2 parts to the pns

2 Parts To The PNS

  • Sympathetic Nervous System

    • Prepares the body for stressful or threating situations.

    • Slows digestion, raises heart rate, raising blood pressure, sweating

    • “Fight Or Flight” Response

      • Stay and confront or turn and run

    • Sympathetic starts with “S” like Stress


2 parts to the pns1

2 Parts To The PNS

  • Parasympathetic Nervous System

    • Calming mechanism for the body.

      • Heart rate & blood pressure return to normal,

    • Acts to conserve & maintain the body’s energy resources.

    • Parasympathetic begins with a “P” just like Peace.


2 parts to the pns2

2 Parts To The PNS


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