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Fungus. Chapter 19. Characteristics. Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs Along with bacteria they are major decomposers Many are saprophytes which means they live off dead material. Most reproduce both sexually and asexually . Fungi are found almost everywhere on earth.

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Fungus

Fungus

Chapter 19


Characteristics
Characteristics

  • Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs

  • Along with bacteria they are major decomposers

  • Many are saprophytes which means they live off dead material.

  • Most reproduce both sexually and asexually.

  • Fungi are found almost everywhere on earth.

  • Their cells have cell wallsmade of chitin.


1. Zygomycota – (common molds) bread, cheese molds & fruit molds

Bread mold




2.Ascomycota (sac fungi) morels, truffles and yeasts.

Truffles


  • Morels

  • Gourmet food

  • Found in woodlands

  • $20 per pound



3. Basidiomycota (club fungi) mushroom, shelf fungi, and puffballs.

Club fungus

mushrooms shelf fungus puffballs


The mushroom is called the fruiting body of the fungus because its purpose is to produce reproductive spores.




4. Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi) penicillium, ringworm, and athletes foot

penicilium



Athletes foot

Imperfect fungus


Toenail fungus

  • 35 million infected in US

  • Can spread from person to person

  • Also called “onychomycosis”


Lichen
Lichen

  • Lichen: A partnership between a fungus and an algae.

  • The algae provides food for the fungus.

  • The fungus provides a place for the algae to live.


Lichen1
Lichen

There are three forms of lichens:

  • Crustose:paint-like crusts that are tightly attached to trees and rocks



  • Fruticose:moss-like, branching, the most three dimensional of all the lichens


Parts of a mushroom
Parts of a Mushroom

  • Fruiting body:grows above ground

    • Stalk(Stipe):main support of mushroom

    • Ring (annulus):skirt of tissue circling stalk

    • Cap: top of mushroom

    • Scales:flakey surface of the cap

    • Gills:underside of cap (produce spores)

    • Spores:reproductive structures

  • Mycelial threads:Underground network of hyphae.

    • Hyphae: long strands of cells; make up the body of the fungi.


Scale

Cap

Gills

Fruiting body

Ring

Spores

Stalk

Mycelial Threads

Hyphae


Interesting fungi
Interesting Fungi

  • Cyclosporine: An organ transplant drug that is used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.



Predator mushrooms – Oyster mushroom use their mycelium to kill and eat round worms.


  • Truffles: Very expensive fungus that is used to flavor foods. Pigs and dogs are used to hunt this fungus that is buried underground.

White Truffles

$800-$1,500

Per pound

Black Truffles – 3 oz $180


763 white truffle
$763 White Truffle



Stinkhorns smell like rotten meat to attract flies that spread their spores
Stinkhorns– smell like rotten meat to attract flies that spread their spores.




Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus niger

  • Used to create citric acid, an additive to many foods.




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