The rock cycle
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The Rock Cycle. One kind of rock turns into another which turns into another which turns into another which turns into another. Where it all begins. Igneous Rocks. Intrusive Extrusive. Intrusive Igneous. Extrusive Igneous. Basalt Low Silica – Shield Volcano.

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The Rock Cycle

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The rock cycle

TheRockCycle

One kind of rock turns into another which turns into another which turns into another which turns into another


Where it all begins

Where it all begins


Igneous rocks

Igneous Rocks

Intrusive

Extrusive


Intrusive igneous

Intrusive Igneous


Extrusive igneous

Extrusive Igneous


The rock cycle

  • Basalt

  • Low Silica – Shield Volcano


The rock cycle

  • Andesite – lava from the Andes

  • High Silica - Stratovolcano


The rock cycle

  • Pumice – floating rock!!!

  • High SilicaStratovolcano


The rock cycle

  • Rhyolite

  • High Silica – Stratovolcano


Sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic – rock fragments - sediments

Organic – shells – dinosaur bones

Chemical – salt – Dead Sea

Layers!!!

Ripples in Stream bottoms!


The rock cycle

  • Sedimentary rocks cover about three-quarters of the earth's surface

  • Clastic sedimentary rocks are made up of rock fragments, called sediments, that have been eroded from one place and moved to another by water, ice, wind, or gravity. In time, the sediments are buried, compacted and cemented together to form sedimentary rocks. Examples include conglomerate, sandstone, and shale.

  • Other sedimentary rocks are “chemical” or “organic”.

    • Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed by the precipitation or evaporation of minerals from solution in an ancient seawater. Examples include limestone, gypsum, and halite (rock salt).

    • Organic sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of dead plant and animal matter which is then compacted together. Examples include peat, coal and oil


The rock cycle

  • Strata

  • Layers!

  • Grand Canyon

  • Sedimentary & Metamorphic


Jurassic marl

Jurassic Marl

  • Lyme Regis, UK


Sedimentary cliff

Sedimentary cliff

Cardiff, Cymru


The rock cycle

  • Ayers Rock / Uluru

    Sedimentary rock from rivers - exposed due to erosion

    Monolith!!!


Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphic Rocks

Contact or Thermal Metamorphism

and

Regional Metamorphism


The rock cycle

  • Thermal metamorphic rocks /Contact metamorphic rocks.

  • This type is often associated with igneous rocks.

  • Because of the high heat, the “regular” rock (known as country rock), near the hot rock is often altered.

  • The pressure involved is usually negligible.

  • Alteration of the rock is generally localized (close to the hot rock) in what is known as a metamorphic aureole or halo.

x = Slight Metamorphism

X = Intense Metamorphism

^ = Igneous rock


The rock cycle

Regional metamorphic rock is usually the result of extreme pressure. These are commonly associated with mountain building events and are often associated with plate boundaries at continental margins.

  • Pressure squeezes the mineral grains of sedimentary rock together. This eliminates the pore spaces, and fluids.

  • With more pressure, the mineral grains will form a tightly interlocking mosaic.

  • With even more pressure, the crystals may reform into fewer but larger grains.

    • This process is known as recrystallization. The recrystallized mineral may remain the same as it was, or it may be a new, more dense mineral.


Classification of metamorphic rocks

Classification of Metamorphic Rocks

  • Metamorphic rocks can be subdivided into foliated and nonfoliated types.

  • Foliated means there are mineral grains aligned parallel to each other. This results in a layered appearance.

  • A Nonfoliated metamorphic rock generally consists of equaldimensional grains. You can’t see layers

  • A rock can also be identified by its metamorphic grade. This is simply a description of the overall intensity of metamorphism the rock was subjected to. What this implies is that a low-grade metamorphic rock shows textural or mineralogic evidence of having been subjected to low pressures and/or temperatures.


The rock cycle

  • Gneiss

  • Foliated or Nonfoliated??


The rock cycle

Igneous

/\ Melting\/ Heat&Pressure

Melting /\Erosion \/

Sedimentary

Metamorphic

<-ErosionHeat & Pressure ->


Word picture definition sentence

Word, Picture, Definition, Sentence

  • MineralSilicate

  • RockLuster

  • CrystalStreak

  • GemHardness

  • RubyMoh’s Scale

  • DiamondCleavage

  • SapphireFracture

  • FossilOre

  • Crystal SystemTexture

  • Specific GravityEmerald


The rock cycle

  • END


The rock cycle

SEDIMENTARY TO METAMORPHIC

  • The following is a very general progression from sedimentary rock to metamorphic rock based primarily on pressure.

  • SURFACE MUD

  • 5 km DEEP SHALE (sedimentary)

  • 10 km DEEP SLATE (low grade metamorphic)

  • 15 km DEEP SCHIST (Garnet appears)

  • 20 km DEEP GNEISS (high grade metamorphic)

  • 25 km DEEP HORNFELS (Cordierite appears)


Where is it all found

Where is it all Found?

  • Hawai’i is easy enough, it’s all Volcanic!

  • What about the rest of North America?


The rock cycle

  • Shaded Relief


The rock cycle

  • Sedimentary


The rock cycle

  • Metamorphic


The rock cycle

  • Volcanic


The rock cycle

  • Plutonic


The rock cycle

  • All


The rock cycle

  • All

  • With some more detail


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