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Resistance Training and Spotting Techniques. chapter 14. Resistance Training and Spotting Techniques. Roger W. Earle, MA; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D Thomas R. Baechle, EdD; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D. Chapter Objectives .

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Resistance Training and Spotting Techniques

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Resistance training and spotting techniques l.jpg

Resistance Training and Spotting Techniques

chapter14

Resistance Trainingand SpottingTechniques

Roger W. Earle, MA; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*DThomas R. Baechle, EdD; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D


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Chapter Objectives

  • Understand the general techniques involved in properly performing resistance training exercises.

  • Provide breathing guidelines.

  • Determine the appropriateness of wearing a weight belt.

  • Provide recommendations for spotting free weight exercises.

  • Teach proper resistance training exercise and spotting techniques.


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Section Outline

  • Exercise Technique Fundamentals

    • Handgrips

    • Stable Body and Limb Positioning

    • Range of Motion and Speed

    • Breathing Considerations

    • Weight Belts

    • Lifting a Bar off the Floor


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Handgrips

    • In the pronated grip, the palms are down and the knuckles are up; also called the overhand grip.

    • In the supinated grip, the palms are up and the knuckles are down; also known as the underhand grip.

    • In the neutral grip, the knuckles point laterally—as in a handshake.

      (continued)


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Handgrips (continued)

    • The alternated grip usesone hand in a pronated grip and the other in a supinated grip.

    • The hook grip is similar to the pronated grip except that the thumb is positioned under the index and middle fingers.

    • The thumb is wrapped around the bar in all of the grips shown; this positioning is called a closed grip.

    • When the thumb does not wrap around the bar, the grip is called an open or false grip.


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Bar Grips

  • Figure 14.1 (next slide)

    • (a) Pronated

    • (b) Supinated

    • (c) Alternated

    • (d) Hook (posterior view)


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Figure 14.1


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Grip Widths

  • Figure 14.2 (next slide)

    • The three grip widths are:

      • Common

      • Wide

      • Narrow


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Figure 14.2


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Stable Body and Limb Positioning

    • A stable position enables the athlete to maintain proper body alignment during an exercise, which in turn places an appropriate stress on muscles and joints.

    • Both free-weight and machine exercises require a stable position. The five-point body contact position provides stability for seated or supine exercises.

      (continued)


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Stable Body and Limb Positioning (continued)

    • Following is the five-point body contact position:

      • Head is placed firmly on the bench or back pad.

      • Shoulders and upper back are placed firmly and evenly on the bench or back pad.

      • Buttocks are placed evenly on the bench or seat.

      • Right foot is flat on the floor.

      • Left foot is flat on the floor.


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Key Point

  • Exercises performed while standing typically require that the feet be positioned slightly wider than hip-width with the heels and balls of the feet in contact with the floor. Seated or supine exercises performed on a bench usually require a five-point body contact position.


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Key Point

  • Before performing machine exercises, adjust seat and pads to position the body joint primarily involved in the exercise in alignment with the machine’s axis of rotation.


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Range of Motion and Speed

    • A full range of motion maximizes the value of an exercise and improves flexibility.

    • Slow, controlled movements make it easier to achieve a complete ROM, though quick movements are appropriate for power exercises.


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Breathing Considerations

    • The sticking point is the most strenuous movement of a repetition, and it occurs soon after the transition from the eccentric phase to the concentric phase.

    • Instruct athletes to exhale through the sticking point and to inhale during the less stressful phase of the repetition.


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Breathing Considerations

    • Valsalva maneuver

      • For experienced and well-resistance-trained athletes performing structural exercises

      • Will assist in maintaining proper vertebral alignment and support

      • Involves expiring against a closed glottis, which, when combined with contracting the abdomen and rib cage muscles, creates rigid compartments of fluid in the lower torso and air in the upper torso

      • Helps to establish the “flat-back” and erect upper torso position in many exercises


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Key Point

  • For most exercises, exhale through the sticking point of the concentric phase and inhale during the eccentric phase. Experi-enced and well-trained athletes may want to use the Valsalva maneuver when performing structural exercises to assist in maintaining proper vertebral alignment and support.


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Weight Belts

    • Typically an athlete should wear a weight belt when performing exercises that place stress on the lower back and during sets that involve near-maximal or maximal loads.

    • A weight belt is not needed for exercises that do not stress the lower back or for those that do stress the lower back but involve light loads.


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Exercise Technique Fundamentals

  • Lifting a Bar off the Floor

    • The position of the feet and back shown in figure 14.3 enables the leg muscles to make a major contribution as the bar is lifted off the floor.

    • Keeping the bar close to the body and the back flat during the upward pull helps avoid excessive strain on the lower back.


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Lifting Technique

  • Figure 14.3 (next two slides)

    • Correct technique for lifting a bar off the floor


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Figure 14.3


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Figure 14.3 (continued)


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Section Outline

  • Spotting Free Weight Exercises

    • Types of Exercises Performed and Equipment Involved

      • Spotting Overhead Exercises and Those With the Bar on the Back or Front Shoulders

      • Spotting Over-the-Face Exercises

      • Do Not Spot Power Exercises

    • Number of Spotters

    • Communication Between Athlete and Spotter

      • Use of a Liftoff

      • Amount and Timing of Spotting Assistance


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Spotting Free Weight Exercises

  • Types of Exercises Performed and Equipment Involved

    • With the exception of power exercises, free weight exercises performed with a bar moving over the head, positioned on the back, racked on the front of the shoulders, or passing over the face typically require one or more spotters.


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Spotting Free Weight Exercises

  • Types of Exercises Performed and Equipment Involved

    • Spotting Overhead Exercises and Those With the Bar on the Back or Front Shoulders

      • Ideally, to promote the safety of the lifter, the spotters, and others nearby, overhead exercises and those involving the bar on the back or front shoulders should be performed inside a power rack with the crossbars in place at an appropriate height.

        (continued)


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Spotting Free Weight Exercises

  • Types of Exercises Performed and Equipment Involved

    • Spotting Overhead Exercises and Those With the Bar on the Back or Front Shoulders (continued)

      • Out-of-the-rack exercises (e.g., forward step lunge orstep-up) with heavy weights can result in serious injury.

      • These exercises should be executed only by well-trained and skilled athletes and spotted by experienced profes-sionals.


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Spotting Free Weight Exercises

  • Types of Exercises Performed and Equipment Involved

    • Spotting Over-the-Face Exercises

      • When spotting over-the-face barbell exercises, it is important for the spotter to grasp the bar with an alternated grip, usually narrower than the athlete’s grip. Because of the bar’s curved trajectory in some exercises (e.g., lying triceps extension, barbell pullover), the spotter will use an alternated grip to pick up the bar and return it to the floor but a supinated grip to spot the bar.


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Spotting Dumbbell Exercises

  • Figure 14.4 (next slide)

    • (a) Incorrect dumbbell spotting location

    • (b) Correct spotting location

    • Arrows indicate the spotter’s hand placement on the athlete’s arms.


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Figure 14.4


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Spotting Free Weight Exercises

  • Types of Exercises Performed and Equipment Involved

    • Do Not Spot Power Exercises


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Spotting Free Weight Exercises

  • Number of Spotters

    • Determined by load and experience and ability of athlete and spotters

  • Communication Between Athlete and Spotter

    • Use of a Liftoff

    • Amount and Timing of Spotting Assistance


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