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Leadership and Teamwork By Professor Simon Burtonshaw-Gunn – licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non-Commercial – Share Alike License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/. School of the Built Environment MSc Construction Management

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Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Leadership and Teamwork

By Professor Simon Burtonshaw-Gunn – licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non-Commercial – Share Alike License

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

School of the Built Environment

MSc Construction Management

People Management in the Built Environment

Presentation 2: Teamwork

Professor Simon Burtonshaw-Gunn


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Presentation content . . .

  • Presentation 2: Teamwork

  • Groups and Teams

  • Formal groups

  • Informal Groups

  • Effectiveness in Groups and Teams

  • Team development


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Organisational purposes for groups and teams:

  • Distribute work, having brought together a particular set of skills, talents and responsibilities

  • manage and control work

  • facilitate the problem-solving process by bringing together all of the available capabilities

  • pass on decisions or information to those who need to know

  • gather ideas, information and suggestions

  • test and ratify decisions

  • Co-ordinate and facilitate necessary liasion

  • increase commitment and involvement

  • resolve arguments and disputes between different functions, levels and divisions.

  • Charles Handy, 1993


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Groups…..Teams…..?????

  • Oasis performing to a gathering of 70,000 ecstatic fans

  • Newly-formed Euro Sales team who have not yet met each other, but communicate and interconnect on a daily basis

  • The comprehensively beaten, but informally run, pub quiz team

  • Delayed passengers on the 8.15 from Euston who together, while sitting in their carriage, brainstorm a letter of complaint and form a commuters action group

  • The folk singer Clive Gregson strumming away, in his garden, to a dozen friends

  • The victorious village football team.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

A Psychological group is any number of people who:

  • interact with each other.

  • are psychologically aware of each other.

  • perceive themselves to be a group.

  • Ed Schein, 1988.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Types of Groups

Formal

Temporary

Permanent

Informal


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Formal Groups:

  • have a FORMAL STRUCTURE.

  • are TASK oriented.

  • tend to be PERMANENT(?)

  • their activities contribute DIRECTLY to the organisation’s purpose.

  • are CONSCIOUSLY organised by somebody for a reason.

  • Created to achieve specific organisational OBJECTIVES.

  • Concerned with the CO-ORDINATION of work activities.

  • Charles Handy – Any collection of people who perceive themselves to be a group

  • Are intentionally organised by the organisation

  • . . . . A team is more than a group.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Because the individuals in formal groups share some commonality of objectives, goals and (occasionally) rewards, they are more akin to teams - formal teams. They assist people to:

  • Accomplish goals much less haphazardly than they would in informal groups

  • co-ordinate the activities of the functions of the organisation

  • establish logical authority relationships among people and between positions

  • apply the concepts of specialisation and division of labour

  • create more group cohesion as a result of a common set of goals.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Informal Groups on the other hand can be . . . .

  • A collection of individuals who become a group when members develop certain interdependencies, influence one another’s behaviour and contribute to mutual need satisfaction.

  • Flexible & loosely structured.

  • Where relationships may be left undefined.

  • Where membership is spontaneous, and with varying degrees of involvement.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Informal groups can satisfy a range of needs within the workplace:

  • Reduce feelings of insecurity and anxiety and provide each other with social support

  • fulfil affiliation needs for friendship.

  • help to define our sense of identity and maintain our self-esteem

  • pander to our social nature, as “social animals”.

  • provide guidelines on generally acceptable behaviour: shape group and organisational norms

  • cater for those often ill-defined tasks which can only be performed through the combined efforts of a number of individuals working together.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

An Effective Work Group typically has the following characteristics . . .

  • Informal relaxed atmosphere

  • Relevant discussion

  • Objectives clearly understood

  • Members listen to each other belief in shared aims & objectives.

  • Sense of commitment to the group.

  • Acceptance of group values & norms.

  • Feeling of mutual trust & dependency.

  • Full participation by all members & decision-making by consensus

  • Free flow of information & communications.

  • Open expression of feelings & disagreements.

  • Resolution of conflict by the members themselves.

  • Lower level of staff turnover, absenteeism, errors, complaints


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teams . . .

So what is a “team” ???


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teams . . .

A couple of definitions . . .

A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable

Katzenbach and Smith, 1994

A team is a group of people who share common objectives and who need to work together to achieve them


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teams . . .

A couple of definitions . . .

A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable

Katzenbach and Smith, 1994

A team is a group of people who share common objectives and who need to work together to achieve them

This means that a team is NOT . . .


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teams . . .

This means that a team is NOT . . .

  • A social gathering where people meet for the purpose of enjoyment

  • It is not an audience of people who are assembled to listen and learn

  • In the UK the House of Commons is not a team as its members do not share common objectives

  • Committees are not usually teams as their members comprise people who represent different groups


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teams . . .

Defining a team may suggest that it has . . . .

  • A definable membership

  • Shared communication network

  • Shared sense of collective identity and purpose

  • Shared goals

  • Group consciousness, “norms & rules”.

  • Interdependence

  • Interaction

  • Group structure and roles

  • Ability to act in a unitary manner

  • Based on Huczynski & Buchanan (1991)

  • and John Adair, Effective Teambuilding, (1986)


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teams . . .

“No one’s perfect but a team can be.”

Meredith Belbin, management and team guru.

“Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.”

Henry Ford, 1863-1947.

"A single arrow is easily broken, but not ten in a bundle."

Japanese proverb


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Groups . . .

Six Key Features of Effective Teams

  • Individuals . . . make up and calibre

  • Dynamics . . . Effective interpersonal relationships

  • Leadership . . . Provided as necessary

  • Structure . . . Mechanical elements

  • Boundary management . . . interface issues

  • Image . . . External perception


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

Behaviours leading to successful teamwork….

  • Ability to articulate own ideas/feelings effectively

  • Active listening

  • Clear questioning/asking for information

  • Respecting and valuing others’ feelings/ideas/values

  • Making sure everyone gets a chance to contribute

  • Flexibility and willingness to compromise

  • Sense of humour/ability to laugh at oneself

  • Appropriate allocation of roles, leader, time-keeper, scribe, facilitator, devils-advocate, etc….

  • Ability to summarise and to offer new leads/alternatives . . . .


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

….. and more behaviours leading to successful teamwork

  • Willingness to confront inconsistencies/differences and try to resolve them, rather than ignoring them.

  • Attention to group climate (i.e. the feelings in the group) as well as to the work being done.

  • Getting agreements on decisions/actions to be implemented.

  • Patience/willingness to explore blind alleys/tolerance of apparently ‘odd’ ideas

  • Genuine acceptance and warmth in relation to others.

  • Willingness to get involved and contribute fully.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

Characteristics of Ineffective Teams

  • Formality, tense atmosphere, indifference, boredom

  • Domination by few, contributions often lack relevance

  • Aims ill-defined and misunderstood, conflict between private aims and common aims.

  • Unfair hearing, irrelevant speeches, members fear ridicule/condemnation

  • Low participation

  • No clear group objectives.

  • Members tend not to listen to each other

  • Lack of consensus, premature decision making, formal voting

  • Personalised destructive criticism

  • Feelings remain under the surface

  • Lack of awareness of decisions, unclear assignments

  • Leadership role jealously guarded

  • Not too concerned with deficiencies in group


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

Behaviours inhibiting teamwork

  • Lack of tolerance for others views/feelings.

  • Unwillingness to listen.

  • Muddled argument

  • Lack of leadership.

  • Lack of facilitation

  • Lack of clear goals and targets

  • Failure to involve more reticent group members

  • Failure to attend to time-limits /constraints

  • Unwillingness to listen or attend to counter-arguments

  • Domination of the group by one or two ‘loud-mouths’

  • Impatience with others’ ideas/values

  • Personal rudeness, lack of tact/respect

  • Unwillingness to join in and ‘own’ shared responsibility for the group task.


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork

Improving the effectiveness of a team is one of the cheapest ways of improving performance of an organization. It is often quicker than attending to each individual because good teams can compensate for an individual weakness.

Comments, opinions, thoughts. . .


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork

Effective teams are quite rare . . .

If you are a member of an effective team you will know that they are special

Effective teams are special as they do not only produce superior outputs but are a joy to be part of and provide effective and powerful learning to individual members


Successful and effective members of working teams have

Successful and effective members of working teams have:

The ability to co-operate & share in decision-making

Willingness to listen to & accept other people’s ideas and suggestions

Capacity to modify their own ideas so as to fall in with evolving proposals and decisions

Preparedness to undertake tasks which form only part of a greater design & to see praise/recognition go to the group

Willingness to come up with ideas which could be “shot down” rather than merely coast along (“social loafing”)

An inclination to support other group members and the group’s work rather than undermine

Willingness to accept responsibility for outcomes of group

Teamwork . . .


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

How Teams Develop

Performing

Norming

Storming

Mourning

Forming


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

How Teams Develop

Stage 4: Teamworking is mature ‘Performing’

Concerned with achieving goals

Stage 3: Teamworking is ‘Norming’

Group help is widespread

Concern is how individuals can help the group

Stage 5: Team is ending ‘Mourning’

Concerned with breaking up and moving on to new tasks

Stage 2: Team is experimenting ‘Storming’

Concerned with have we work together

Stage 1: Teamworking is underdeveloped ‘Forming’

Concerned with who fits where


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

What do these stages look like???

Performing

Norming

Storming

Mourning

Forming


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

Teamwork . . .

  • Performing signs may include:

  • relaxed, purposeful atmosphere

  • feelings of confidence

  • most talk being about the job

  • goals being achieved

  • Norming signs may include:

  • shared leadership

  • preparedness to change

  • active participation by all

  • mutual problem solving

  • open exchange of ideas

  • Mourning signs may include:

  • tidying up loose ends

  • celebrating achievement

  • feelings of sadness

  • planning for new teams saying good-byes

  • Storming signs may include:

  • conflict

  • lively debate and discussion

  • trying out ways of working

  • thinks beginning to be achieved

  • Forming signs may include:

  • self conscious politeness

  • embarrassment

  • enthusiasm

  • stilted conversation

  • not much progress yet


Leadership and teamwork by professor simon burtonshaw gunn licensed under the creative commons attribution non

School of the Built Environment

MSc Construction Management

People Management in the Built Environment

Presentation 2: Teamwork

Professor Simon Burtonshaw-Gunn


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