Dr. S.P. Goswami Head, Dept. of Speech Language Pathology, AIISH Mysore &
When every child is welcomed and valued regardless of ability or disability.
“Ignorance … is a guarantee of marginalisation.”
Department for International Development of the United Kingdom ( DFID)
Many of whom are marginalised by dimensions such as enrolled in primary school (DFID, 2001), poverty, disadvantaged gender, disability, and caste. While many educational programmes have attempted to reach out to these previously excluded children, those with disabilities are often forgotten, emphasising their invisible status in a rigidly categorised society.
A focus on disability in global development not only raises questions of diverse local interpretations of the same issue, but also the need to accept the diversity of needs within this ‘group’ depending on both the nature of impairment and cultural context.
The medical model defines disability scientifically, as a physical, medically-diagnosed deficit which handicaps. It is impairment-focused, isolating the experience of disability from external influences such as societal attitudes.
In the UK, the medical model is reflected in the psycho-medical dominance of segregated education for children with disabilities in the 1950’s (Clough & Corbett, 2000) which was transported to developing contexts by colonialists and development agencies
This model can be seen, however, as being dominant long before the 1950’s, with philanthropic, charitable institutions being set up from the mid 1800s in both north and south, particularly for blind or deaf children, by Christian missionaries.
In India today, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, which is responsible for people with disabilities, has a medically-inspired classification system whereby one’s disability either falls into the category of locomotor, visual, hearing, speech or mental (GOI, 2005).
These broad categorizations cannot demonstrate the extent or exact type of impairment, which could assist in assessment of medical, and in some cases educational, need, and have no bearing on the social aspects of disablement, perhaps reflecting cultural perceptions of what ‘disability’ means in India.
In most northern discourses the social model has overtaken the medical model, whereby cultural environment and attitudes which influence disabled people’s societal participation and citizenship status are seen as the handicap, rather than the physical impairment.
Hence it has a more human rights, as well as contextual, dimension. While the social model is salient in all contexts, it ignores the significance of the type and extent of impairment at the expense of highlighting the socio-political aspects.
DFID (2000: 2) appears to neatly combine both the medical and social models in its definition of disability as:
“…long term impairment leading to social and economic disadvantages, denial of rights, and limited opportunities to play an equal part in the life of the community.”
This definition both combines health and social implications, and includes human rights and social exclusion dimensions in this complex, supposedly catchall word ‘disability’.
HEALTH CONDITION implications, and includes human rights and social exclusion dimensions in this complex, supposedly catchall word
(disorder or disease)
Body functions and structures
INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING DISABILITY AND HEALTH (WHO,2001)
It means the doors to schools, classrooms and school activities are open to every child and they are afforded every opportunity to be included with their non-disabled peers.
The focus is on giving every child the help s/he needs to learn.
Special Education. . . implications, and includes human rights and social exclusion dimensions in this complex, supposedly catchall word
is NOT a place
Special Education IS. . . implications, and includes human rights and social exclusion dimensions in this complex, supposedly catchall word
…individualized supports that give kids with disabilities the extra help they need to learn from general curriculum.
Physical therapy implications, and includes human rights and social exclusion dimensions in this complex, supposedly catchall word
Each special education student should have an IEP
Students can’t learn general curriculum unless they are in the room where it is being taught.
IEPs must have:
“ A statement of measurable annual goals, including benchmarks or short-term objectives, related to meeting the child’s needs that result from the child’s disability to enable the child to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for non-disabled children), or for preschool children, as appropriate, to participate in appropriate activities.”
How do the IEP goals fit into the general curriculum?
Each public agency shall ensure that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities…are educated with children who are non-disabled and that special classes, separate schooling or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in the regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
assistive devices kid/s uses
Accommodations are changes in teaching methods. It can include changes in:
Children with disability educational assistant when possible?
Impermissible Disciplinary Measures
Disability Audit education system on the basis of disability, and the appropriate government shall ensure that all persons with disabilities, especially girls and women with disabilities, have access to education, without discrimination and on an equal basis with others, at all levels.
Disability Rights Tribunal
WHAT IS OUR ROLE?? education system on the basis of disability, and the appropriate government shall ensure that all persons with disabilities, especially girls and women with disabilities, have access to education, without discrimination and on an equal basis with others, at all levels.
in favor of
Children with disabilities and their caregivers
Be sensitive and sensitize to people around you and their rights Awareness of how this can help them at various situation: Familial crisis, Work place and at society at large.
Professional: Think beyond the box!
Sensitive to needs of the person at every level
Look for the strengths of the acts , and use your wisdom to fit these for CWD thereby improving the life as a whole