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Using Unfair means. What is it? How can you avoid it?. Reports, Assignments, Other assessments. Why do we ask you do these? To help you learn To help you assimilate all the things you have learned To help you learn to apply your knowledge

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Using unfair means

Using Unfair means

What is it?

How can you avoid it?


Reports assignments other assessments
Reports, Assignments, Other assessments

  • Why do we ask you do these?

    • To help you learn

    • To help you assimilate all the things you have learned

    • To help you learn to apply your knowledge

    • To give us (the markers) evidence that you have learned


Referencing
Referencing

In any assessment, when you use ideas from another source, you need to reference these ideas.


Referencing styles
Referencing Styles

The citation

Harvard

  • In the body of the report:

    • Several numerical algorithms have subsequently been proposed to unwrap the phase spectrum for a given signal (Tribolet, 1976; McGowan and Kuc, 1982; Moura and Bageroer, 1988).

  • In the list of references at the end:

    • McGowan, R., and Kuc, R. 1982. A direct relation between a signal time series and its unwrapped phase: theory, example and program. IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, ASSP-30, 719-726.

    • Moura, J.M.F. and Baggeroer, A.B. 1988.Phase unwrapping of signals propagated under the Arctic ice crust: a statistical approach. IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, ASSP-36, 617-630.

    • Tribolet, J.M., 1977. A new phase unwrapping algorithm. IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, ASSP-26, 170-177.

  • The reference list


    Referencing styles1
    Referencing Styles

    The citation

    Numeric

    • In the body of the report:

      Several numerical algorithms have subsequently been proposed to unwrap the phase spectrum for a given signal [1-3].

    • In the list of references at the end:

      [1] Tribolet, J.M. A new phase unwrapping algorithm. IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, 1977, ASSP-26, 170-177, ASSP-26, 170-177.

      [2] McGowan, R., and Kuc, R. A direct relation between a signal time series and its unwrapped phase: theory, example and program. IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, 1982, ASSP-30, 719-726.

      [3] Moura, J. M. F. and Baggeroer, A.B. Phase unwrapping of signals propagated under the Arctic ice crust: a statistical approach. IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, 1988, ASSP-36, 617-630.

    The reference list


    Referencing from the web
    Referencing from the Web:

    Website Reference, Harvard Style:

    Author, Year. Title [online]. [Date accessed]. Available from World Wide Web : <url of site>

    Website Reference, Numeric Style:

    [n] Author. Title [online]. Year [Date accessed]. Available from World Wide Web : <url of site>

    The citation will have the same format as for a non-web source.


    Why is referencing important
    Why is referencing important?

    • It shows the source of material that is not your own.

    • It shows that your material has been assembled after consideration of other published works.

    • It allows the reader to study a subject in more detail by reading your referenced sources.

    • Correctly referenced work avoids the use of unfair means.


    More help with referencing
    More help with referencing

    • Library - Information Skills MOLE course

    • Williams, K. And Carroll, J., 2009. Referencing & Understanding Plagiarism. Pocket Study Skills. Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Fisher, D. and Hanstock, I., 1998. Citing References. The Nottingham Trent University.

    • ACSE Academic Skills MOLE course


    Avoiding plagiarism and collusion the two main forms of unfair means
    Avoiding plagiarism and collusion (the two main forms of unfair means)

    • What is plagiarism? What is collusion?

    • Why do you have to avoid it?

    • How do you avoid it?

    Plagiarism is a form of theft:


    What is plagiarism
    What is plagiarism?

    • Is the using of ideas or work of another person and submitting them as your own.

    • Submitting work which includes even a small amount of material written by others, unless this material has been correctly referenced.

    • Submitting work containing paraphrases of others’ work, unless this material has been correctly referenced.


    What is collusion
    What is collusion?

    • It is where two or more people work together to produce a piece of work, all of part of which is then submitted as their own individual work.

    • This include passing on work in any format to another student.

    • Consenting to another student copying material from you, or making your material available for other students to use or copy. This is also known as aiding or abetting other students to use unfair means.


    How can you avoid plagiarism and collusion
    How can you avoid plagiarism and collusion?

    • Keep a list of sources (e.g. in a log book) and read widely, assimilating ideas and gaining an understanding of the subject

    • Write up your own understanding and interpretation of the subject. Cite the source of background material.

    • If a source expresses an idea particularly well, it may be OK to include a quote from that source and reference it – unless you have been told differently by the lecturer

    • Do not use material obtained from essay writing web sites

    • Do not work with other students on individual projects.

    • Take steps to safeguard your work from unauthorised access.

    • If you are doing a group project, make sure you follow the lecturer’s guidelines for whether the material submitted for assessment should be produced as a group or individually.


    Why avoid plagiarism and collusion
    Why avoid plagiarism and collusion?

    • Learning is about acquiring, assimilating, and using knowledge.

    • If you hand in work that is not your own, then you have not acquired, assimilated and used knowledge.

    • Using unfair means undermines the standards of the University’s awards and disadvantages those students who have attempted to complete assessments honestly and fairly.


    Penalties for plagiarism and collusion
    Penalties for plagiarism and collusion

    • A student who hands in plagiarised work may get a mark of zero for that work.

    • This may result in failing a module, or even failing a degree programme.

    • A student who hands in plagiarised work may be referred to the University’s Discipline Committee.

    • DON’T PLAGIARISE

    • DON’T COLLUDE


    An example
    An example

    • Suppose you had to write an essay on “The Application of Microcontrollers in Automobiles”

    • You start looking for information on this topic


    Let s suppose you find http www mcjournal com articles arc105 arc105 htm
    Let’s suppose you find: http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm

    If you put this in your essay, would it be plagiarism?

    • You like the ideas expressed in the 5th paragraph:

      Another factor supporting the increase in electronic vehicle in the automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real-time, thus making more intelligent systems possible. For example, an Integrated Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by coordinating the data generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another benefit of these networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier. Second-guessing is the practice of using data from one system to check the plausibility of the results of an independent system. This data could be used as a back-up under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed and vehicle directional information used in a Stability Management system could be used to supplement the Navigation system, especially in the event that GPS is lost.


    How about this is it plagiarism
    How about this: is it plagiarism?

    "Another factor supporting the increase in electronic vehicle in the automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real-time, thus making more intelligent systems possible. For example, an Integrated Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by coordinating the data generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another benefit of these networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier. Second-guessing is the practice of using data from one system to check the plausibility of the results of an independent system. This data could be used as a back-up under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed and vehicle directional information used in a Stability Management system could be used to supplement the Navigation system, especially in the event that GPS is lost. "

    Why?! – I put it in quotes!


    How about this
    How about this?

    "Another factor supporting the increase in electronic vehicle in the automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real-time, thus making more intelligent systems possible. For example, an Integrated Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by coordinating the data generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another benefit of these networks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier. Second-guessing is the practice of using data from one system to check the plausibility of the results of an independent system. This data could be used as a back-up under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed and vehicle directional information used in a Stability Management system could be used to supplement the Navigation system, especially in the event that GPS is lost. "(Bannatyne, 2004)

    References:

    ...

    Bannatyne, R, 2004. Microcontrollers for the Automobile [online]. Micro Control Journal 2004. Available at http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm [Accessed 21 November 2008]

    ...

    Why?! – I put it in quotes and cited and referenced it!


    How about this1
    How about this?

    Another factor supporting the increase in microcontrollers in the automobile is the networking of new and existing systems. There are many benefits of networks in the automobile and from a control systems standpoint; it is advantageous as systems can share data in real-time across a distributed system. For example, an Integrated Chassis Control system layer may be implemented by managing the data generated by the braking, steering and suspension systems. Another benefit of these distributednetworks is that 'second guessing' becomes easier. Second-guessing is the practice of using data from one system to check the reliability of the results of an independent system. This data could be used as a back-up under certain conditions. For example, the wheel speed and vehicle directional information used in a Stability Management system could be used by the Navigation system, especially in the event that GPS is lost. (Bannatyne, 2004)

    References:

    ...

    Bannatyne, R, 2004. Microcontrollers for the Automobile [online]. Micro Control Journal 2004. Available at http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm [Accessed 21 November 2008]

    ...

    Why?! – I’ve changed a few words (those in bold) and I’ve cited and referenced it!


    How about this2
    How about this?

    The fact that an electronic system in an automobile can be networked and data shared in real time has contributed to increased use of microcontrollers in automobiles. This networking and coordination of real time data makes it possible for one component of the system to support the reliability of other components, thus improving overall system performance.

    Why?! – I’ve written the idea in my own words!


    How about this3

    Citation

    Reference

    How about this?

    The fact that an electronic system in an automobile can be networked and data shared in real time has contributed to increased use of microcontrollers in automobiles. This networking and coordination of real time data makes it possible for one component of the system to support the reliability of other components, thus improving overall system performance. (Bannatyne, 2004)

    References:

    ...

    Bannatyne, R, 2004. Microcontrollers for the Automobile [online]. Micro Control Journal 2004. Available at http://www.mcjournal.com/articles/arc105/arc105.htm [Accessed 21 November 2008]

    ...

    This one is OK – it’s in my own words, and the idea is correctly cited and referenced.



    Example 1

    Text from a student submission:

    The system provides continuous control over the RPM of each landing wheel through air intake ducts with servo motor driven inlet vanes gating incoming air to the wheel-mounted impellers

    This is a direct quote from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5104063.html

    The quote was not enclosed in quotation marks, and it was not cited. The source was listed as a reference, however.

    This is plagiarism.

    Example 1


    Example 2

    Text from a student submission:

    An autopilot is an example of a control system. Control systems apply an action based on a measurement and almost always have an impact on the value they are measuring.

    …and later on in the same submission…

    This loop, shown above in the block diagram, works continuously, many times a second, much more quickly and smoothly than a human pilot could. Two- and three-axis autopilots obey the same principles, employing multiple processors that control multiple surfaces. Some airplanes even have autothrust computers to control engine thrust. Autopilot and autothrust systems can work together to perform very complex maneuvers

    These are direct quotes from http://science.howstuffworks.com/autopilot3.htm

    The quotes were not enclosed in quotation marks, and were not cited. The source was listed as a reference, however.

    This is plagiarism.

    Example 2


    Example 3

    Text from a student submission:

    A fusion algorithm is used to calculate the helicopter's attitude. The main rotor rpm is detected magnetically at the rotor axle and the distance to the ground by an ultrasonic sensor. Each of these sensors is directly connected to the microcontroller.

    This is a direct quote from http://pdv.cs.tu-berlin.de/MARVIN/mark_ii_system.html

    The quote was not enclosed in quotation marks, and it was not cited. The source was listed as a reference, however.

    This is plagiarism.

    Example 3


    Example 4

    Text from a student submission:

    Powerful and intelligently chosen electronics embedded in the microcontrollers can via input/output devices ( switches, push buttons, sensors, LCD displays, relays…) control various processes and devices such as: industrial automatics, electric current, temperature, engine performance etc.

    ... Following immediately in same submission...

    Basically, any product or device that interacts with its user has a microcontroller buried inside.

    The first sentence is a direct quote from http://www.thishelps.net/2008/05/architecture-and-programming-of-8051-microcontrollers.html

    The second sentence is a direct quote from http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/microcontroller.htm

    The quotes were not enclosed in quotation marks, they were not cited, and sources were not listed in the reference list.

    This is plagiarism.

    Example 4


    • When you are researching a topic, don’t just copy/paste sentences from several different sources and then combine these and submit this as your own work. Instead, read several different sources, take notes, and keep track of what the sources were. Then, put all the sources away and write your own understanding of what you have read. Sometimes you might want to note similarities and differences between authors. Having written up your understanding, in your own words, cite the ideas and include the sources in a reference list.

    CTRL-C CTRL-V

    AVOID!!


    Turnitin
    Turnitin sentences from several different sources and then combine these and submit this as your own work. Instead, read several different sources, take notes, and keep track of what the sources were. Then, put all the sources away and write your own understanding of what you have read. Sometimes you might want to note similarities and differences between authors. Having written up your understanding, in your own words, cite the ideas and include the sources in a reference list.

    • Turnitin is a plagiarism checking tool endorsed by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), an organisation that supports higher education in the UK

    • Typically lecturers will create a Turnitindropbox on MOLE.

    • Link to Example Turnitin report


    Summary
    Summary sentences from several different sources and then combine these and submit this as your own work. Instead, read several different sources, take notes, and keep track of what the sources were. Then, put all the sources away and write your own understanding of what you have read. Sometimes you might want to note similarities and differences between authors. Having written up your understanding, in your own words, cite the ideas and include the sources in a reference list.

    • A inquiring approach to finding information can stop you from plagiarising

    • When you find information, you then must synthesise it and come to your own understanding of it.

    • When you report what you’ve found, you must do this in your own words.


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