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G. Dodbiba 1 , K.Takahashi 1 , T. Furuyama 2 , J. Sadaki 1 , T. Kamo 3 , and T. Fujita 1 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Life Cycle Assessment: A Tool for Evaluating and Comparing Different Treatment Options for Plastic Wastes. G. Dodbiba 1 , K.Takahashi 1 , T. Furuyama 2 , J. Sadaki 1 , T. Kamo 3 , and T. Fujita 1. 1. Department of Geosystem Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan

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G. Dodbiba 1 , K.Takahashi 1 , T. Furuyama 2 , J. Sadaki 1 , T. Kamo 3 , and T. Fujita 1

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G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Life Cycle Assessment: A Tool for Evaluating and Comparing Different Treatment Options for Plastic Wastes

G. Dodbiba1, K.Takahashi 1, T. Furuyama 2,

J. Sadaki 1, T. Kamo 3, and T. Fujita 1

1. Department of Geosystem Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan

2. Department of Earth Resource Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan

3. National Institute of Advance Industrial Science and Technology, Japan


Outline

Outline

1. LCA Methodology (ISO 14040)

2. LCA of Plastic Wastes from Discarded TV Sets

3. Concluding Remarks


Outline1

Outline

1. LCA Methodology (ISO 14040)

2. LCA of Plastic Wastes from Discarded TV Sets

3. Concluding Remarks


Scope of lca

Scope of LCA

… to evaluate or compare

the life cycle of “products”


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Life-Cycle Stages and Boundaries

(Source:EPA, 1993)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Methodology:Life Cycle Assessment, (ISO 14040)

Definition of products;

Choice of alternatives;

Definition of system boundary;

Data collection;

Theoretical calculation;

Evaluation

Reporting the results;

Propose improvement;

Phase 1:

Phase 2:

Phase 3:

Phase 4:

(Source:Consoli et.al., 1993)


Aim of study

Aim of Study

… to evaluate and compare

different recycling options

for plastic wastesfrom old TV sets

in context ofLCA


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Compositions of a TV Set (weight %)

(Source:O. Murakami, Mitsubishi Elec. ADVANCE, pp. 6-9, 2001).


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Conventional Recycling System for TV sets

Problem:

How to recycle plastic wastes?

Source:Association for Home Electrical Appliances of Japan

http://www.aeha.or.jp/assessment/en/english_flame.html


Objective

Objective

… to compare two different recycling options for plastic wastesfrom old TV setsin context ofLCA.

Option 1: Incineration of plastics for energy recovery (also known as thermal recycling)

Option 2: Sorting plastics for mechanical recycling (also know as material recycling)


Outline2

Outline

1. LCA Methodology (ISO 14040)

2. LCA of Plastic Wastes from Discarded TV Sets

3. Concluding Remarks


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Methodology:Life Cycle Assessment, (ISO 14040)

Definition of products;

Choice of alternatives;

Definition of system boundary;

Phase 1:

(Source:Consoli et.al., 1993)


Phase 1 of lca goal definition and scope

Phase 1 of LCA: Goal Definition and Scope

a. Subject of the study are plastic wastes from old TV sets (display: 25”, weight = 30 kg), which contain:

b. Functional unit: is defined as 1.8 million TV sets per year, over a period of 10 years.

  • PS (6.0 wt%, i.e. 1.80 kg),

  • PVC (3.5 wt%, i.e. 1.05 kg),

  • PE (1.0 wt%, i.e. 0.30 kg).


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Life-cycle of plastics for TV sets

Special cases:

(1). Energy recovery, i.e.c = 0 %;

(2). Mechanical recycling, i.e.c = 100 %andr = 67 %


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Methodology:Life Cycle Assessment, (ISO 14040)

Data collection;

Theoretical calculation;

Phase 2:

(Source:Consoli et.al., 1993)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 2 of LCA: Inventory analysis

a) Data collection

The data of the processes, namely:

were from the LCA database of the Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry (JEMAI).

  • production of PS,

  • production of PVC,

  • production of PE,

  • production of electricity,

  • production of a TV set,


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 2 of LCA: Inventory analysis

a) Data collection

Option 1:Incineration of 1 kg plastic material

Energy generated:

PS – 9,604 kcal/kg

PVC – 4,300 kcal/kg

PE – 11,140 kcal/kg

Emission:

2,640 g CO2 /kg

Source:K. Krekeler et al., Kunstsoffe, 55/10, pp. 758, 1965

Source:Ministry of Environment of Japan, Guidelines, 2004


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Plastics

Density, [kg/m3]

PVC

1400

Option 2:Separation of plastic wastes prior to mechanical recycling

1st Step

2nd Step

PS

1050

PE

960


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 2 of LCA: Inventory analysis

a) Data collection

Option 2: Separation of plastic wastes

(by combining triboelectric separation and air tabling)

Energy:0. 74 kWh/kg

Triboelectric separator0.04 kWh/kg

Air table0.66 kWh/kg

Size reduction0.02 kWh/kg

Sieving0.02 kWh/kg

Recovery of products: 67 %

Grade of products:> 95 %


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

the matrix A represents the flow of products and materials

g is the vector of the environmental interventions

the vector frepresents a special process where the functional unit is an output

the matrix B represents the flow of environmental loads

Steps to be followed in theoretical calculation:

  • Calculate the inverse of matrix of A(i.e.A-1)

  • Calculate the inventory vector g

Phase 2 of LCA: Inventory analysis

b) Theoretical calculations


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Methodology:Life Cycle Assessment, (ISO 14040)

Evaluation

Phase 3:

(Source:Consoli et.al., 1993)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

The categories of the environmental impacts:

  • a) Abiotic resources:ADP (in kg Sb eq.)

  • b) Global warming:GWP (in kg CO2 eq.)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

a) Depletion of Abiotic Resources, (ADP)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

1.6 x

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

a) Depletion of Abiotic Resources, (ADP)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

b) Global Warming Potential (GWP)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

1.4 x

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

b) Global Warming Potential (GWP)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Methodology:Life Cycle Assessment, (ISO 14040)

Reporting the results;

Propose improvement;

Phase 4:

(Source:Consoli et.al., 1993)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

1.5 x

Phase 4 of LCA: Main ResultsEnvironmental Impact


Outline3

Outline

1. LCA Methodology (ISO 14040)

2. LCA of Plastic Wastes from Discarded TV Sets

3. Concluding Remarks


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Concluding Remarks

  • The energy recovery (option 1) and the mechanical recycling (option 2) of plastic wastes from the discarded TV sets were compared in the context of LCA.

  • The energy recovery is an treatment option that generated more energy due to the incineration of plastic wastes. Nevertheless, this option also uses more resources and emits a larger quantity of greenhouse gases.

  • The separation of plastics for mechanical recycling is more effective alternative, because it consumes fewer energy and resources, as well as has a lower environmental impact on global warming.


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Conventional Recycling System for TV sets

Source: Matsushita Eco Technology Center (METEC)

Available from internet: http://panasonic.co.jp/eco/en/metec/tv/material2-1.html


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

  • Three alternativesare being considered when dealing with plastic wastes:

  • energy recovery (also known as thermal recycling), i.e. direct incineration of plastic wastes for energy recovery

  • mechanical recycling (also known as material recycling),i.e. the method by which plastic wastes are recycled into new resources without affecting the basic structure of the material;

  • feedstock recycling (also known as chemical recycling), i.e. the technique that break down polymers into their constituent monomers, which in turn can be used again in refineries or petrochemical and chemical production.


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Required Purity of Sorted Plastics for Reuse

(courtesy of KINKI KOGYO Co. Ltd., Japan)

Reuse of plastics in circulating system as low grade plastics : > 95.0 %

Reuse of plastics in circulating system as virgin plastics : > 99.5 %

Reuse of plastics for agricultural, horticultural industry, etc. : > 99.0 %

Use of plastics as oxidant in blast furnaces : < 1.0 %

(PVC impurity)


Life cycle assessment framework

Life Cycle Assessment Framework

(Source:LCA, ISO 14040)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Bond’s Method: Size-reduction

Wi = 13.81 kWh/t

DP = 2.63 mm

DF = 5.00 mm


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Production of 1 kg PS

(Source: JEMAI-LCA On-line Database)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Production of 1 kg PVC

(Source: JEMAI-LCA On-line Database)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Production of 1 kg PE

(Source: JEMAI-LCA On-line Database)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Production of 1 kWh Electricity

(Source: JEMAI-LCA On-line Database)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Production of a TV set

(Sources: a. JEMAI-LCA On-line Database; b. Murakami, 2001)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Matrix B of Environmental interventions


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Demand vector, f


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Technological Matrix, A


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Structure of LCA model


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

After choosing the FINAL DEMAND of the product, the simplest UNIT PROCESS can be written as follows:

INPUT

(product flow) x (scaling parameter) = (final demand)

OUTPUT

(environmental flow) x (scaling parameter) = (environmental intervention)

Ref.: Leontief, 1970 (Winner of Nobel Prize in 1973)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Input ( - )

Output ( + )

Technological parameters

Emission from the process

Inventory data

Process

Technology matrix;

A

Final demand vector;

f

Process 1……………Process n

??

Environmental intervention matrix;

B

Inventory;

g


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Linear programming

(Heijung et.al, 2002)

Product flow, a

Scaling parameter, s

Demand, f

Environmental flow , b

Environmental intervention , g


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Equations can be written in terms of matrixes


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Final demand vector

Technology matrix

Scaling vector

Intervention matrix

Inventory vector


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Linear programming / Matrix manipulation

Final demand vector

Inverse matrix of technology matrix A

Scaling vector

Environmental intervention matrix

Inventory vector

Solution:

(Heijung et.al, 2002)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

LCI Results – g vector

The outcome of the inventory analysis was the vectorg, which is a list of the quantities gi of pollutants released to the environment and the amount of energy and materials consumed during the life-cycle of plastics for TVs production (Matrix B), i.e.:

for i = 1, 2, … , n


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

The categories of the environmental problems:

  • Resource depletion/Abiotic depletion ADP (in kg Sb eq.)

  • Global warming – GWP (in kg CO2 eq.)

  • Acidification, AP (in kg SO2 eq./kg)

  • Photo-oxidant formation, POCP (in kg C2H4 eq./kg)

  • Eutrophication, EP (in kg PO4 eq./kg)

  • Human toxicity, HTP (in kg 1,4-DCB eq./kg)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

How to calculate the environmental impact?

The impact indicator Ij of each category was calculated after all the environmental loads gi within a category were characterized and aggregated using the following equations,

Results of LCI, g vector


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Characterization factors, ki(j)

Source: Handbook of LCA, 2002


Normalization

Normalization

The indicator Ij of each environmental impact category is divided by a reference value known as normalization factor wj

q indicates the number of the environmental impact categories.


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Weighting factors, ki

Source: Handbook of LCA, 2002

World (1995)

ADP

kg (Sb eq.) ∙ yr-1

1.57 ∙ 1011

GWP

kg (CO2 eq.) ∙ yr-1

3.86 ∙ 1013

AP

kg (SO2 eq.) ∙ yr-1

2.99 ∙ 1011

POCP

kg (C2H4 eq.) ∙ yr-1

4.55 ∙ 1010

EP

kg (PO4 eq.) ∙ yr-1

1.29 ∙ 1011

HTP

kg (1,4-DCB eq.) ∙ yr-1

4.98 ∙ 1013


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

3 x

1.4 x

Phase 3 of LCA: Impact assessment

a) Energy Depletion (ED)


Comparing energy recovery option 1 with mechanical recycling option 2

Comparing energy recovery (option 1) with mechanical recycling (option 2)


An estimate for the environmental burden eeb

An Estimate for the Environmental Burden (EEB)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

3.4.3. Sensitivity Analysis - perturbation method

(Matrix of Environmental Load, g)

where:


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

Sensitivity Analysis

Scenarios for:

a. saving resources (ADP), and

b. reducing the greenhouse gas emission (GWP)


G dodbiba 1 k takahashi 1 t furuyama 2 j sadaki 1 t kamo 3 and t fujita 1

3.4.4. Strategy to reduce the environmental burden

  • Collect as many TV sets as possible

  • Use PSinstead of PVC or PEfor production of TV sets (i.e. possibly excluding PVC)

  • in turn:

  • a. The efficiency of the separation process will be improved reducing the ADP indicator,

  • b. The emission of CH4 and CO2 will be reduced (i.e. GWP)


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