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The History of Life. R. Jenkins. The Big Bang (Video Clip). 12-15 billion years ago all matter was compressed into a space the size of our sun This was followed by a Sudden instantaneous distribution of matter and energy throughout the known universe.

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The big bang video clip
The Big Bang(Video Clip)

  • 12-15 billion years ago all matter was compressed into a space the size of our sun

  • This was followed by a Sudden instantaneous distribution of matter and energy throughout the known universe


Archeon eon and earlier video clip from the big bang
Archeon Eon and Earlier (video clip- From the Big Bang)

  • 4.6 bya: Origin of Earth

  • 4.6 – 3.8 bya

    • Formation of Earth’s crust, atmosphere

    • Chemical and molecular evolution

    • First cells (anaerobic bacteria)


Earth forms how
Earth Forms – How?

  • About 4.6 and 4.5 billion years ago

  • Minerals and ice orbiting the sun started clumping together

  • Heavy metals moved to Earth’s interior, lighter ones floated to surface

  • Produced outer crust and inner mantle


Earth is just right for life
Earth Is “Just Right” for Life

  • Smaller in diameter, gravity would not be great enough to hold onto atmosphere

  • Closer to sun, water would have evaporated

  • Farther from sun, water would have been locked up as ice


First atmosphere
First Atmosphere

  • Hydrogen gas

  • Nitrogen

  • Carbon monoxide

  • Carbon dioxide

  • No gaseous oxygen


Stanley miller s experiment video clip bill nye
Stanley Miller’s Experiment(video clip – Bill Nye)

  • Mixed methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and water

  • Simulated lightning

  • Amino acids and other small molecules formed

gases

boiling water

water containing

organic compounds


Possible sequence

living

cells

enzymes and

other proteins

DNA

RNA

formation of

protein–RNA systems,

evolution of DNA

formation of

lipid spheres

spontaneous formation of lipids,

carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins,

nucleotides under abiotic conditions

Possible Sequence

membrane-bound proto-cells

self-replicating system enclosed in a

selectively permeable, protective lipid sphere


Geologic time line
Geologic Time Line

Geologic Time Line – Long Version

(See Word Documents)


The first cells
The First Cells

  • Originated in Archeon Eon

  • Were prokaryotic heterotrophs

  • Secured energy through anaerobic pathways

    • No oxygen present

    • Relied on glycolysis and fermentation


Proterozoic eon
Proterozoic Eon

  • Origin of photosynthetic eubacteria

  • Oxygen accumulates in atmosphere

  • Origin of aerobic respiration


Evolutionary tree
Evolutionary Tree

ARCHAEBACTERIAL

LINEAGE

ANCESTORS OF

EUKARYOTES

Noncyclic pathway

of photosynthesis

Cyclic pathway of

photosynthesis

ORIGIN OF

PROKARYOTES

Aerobic respiration

3.8 bya

3.2 bya

2.5 bya


Evolutionary tree1
Evolutionary Tree

ARCHAEBACTERIA

Extreme halophiles

Methanogens

Extreme thermophiles

ORIGINS OF ANIMALS

EUKARYOTES

ORIGINS OF EUKARYOTES

Animals

Heterotrophic protistans

ORIGINS OF FUNGI

Fungi

Photosynthetic protistans

ORIGINS OF

MITOCHONDRIA

Plants

ORIGINS OF PLANTS

ORIGINS OF

CHLOROPLASTS

EUBACTERIA

Oxygen-producing

photosynthetic eubacteria

Other photosynthetic eubacteria

Heterotrophic and chemoautotropic eubacteria

1.2 bya

900 mya

435 mya

present


Advantages of organelles
Advantages of Organelles

  • Nuclear envelope may have helped to protect genes from competition with foreign DNA

  • ER channels may have similarly protected vital proteins


Theory of endosymbiosis
Theory of Endosymbiosis

  • Lynn Margulis

  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the descendents of free-living prokaryotic organisms

  • Prokaryotes were engulfed by early eukaryotes and became permanent internal symbionts


1. Endosymbiosis

  • Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells 1.7 billion years ago

  • What are now membrane bound organelles were ingested as food or entered as parasites

EVIDENCE

  • Present day Mitochondria & Chloroplasts have their own DNA which resembles prokaryotic DNA.

  • They replicate their DNA like binary fission in prokaryotes.


Paleozoic era 570 240 mya
Paleozoic Era (570-240 mya)

  • Six periods

    • Cambrian

    • Ordovician

    • Silurian

    • Devonian

    • Carboniferous

    • Permian


Paleozoic era video clip evol of complex
Paleozoic Era(Video Clip – Evol. Of Complex)

  • By early Paleozoic, diverse organisms of all six kingdoms lived in seas

  • During the Silurian and Devonian, plants and animals invaded the land

  • Ended with the greatest known mass extinction and the formation of Pangea


Cambrian period
Cambrian Period

  • Explosive radiation of marine organisms

  • Mass extinction near end of period

    • May have resulted from cooling of seas


Ordovician period
Ordovician Period

  • Adaptive radiation of new reef organisms in warm, shallow seas

  • Increase in diversity of shelled animals

  • Ended with glaciation and mass extinction as Gondwana straddled South Pole


Silurian period
Silurian Period

  • Reef communities recover

  • First land plants

GONDWANA



Devonian period
Devonian Period

  • Jawed fishes arise, diversify

  • Ancestors of amphibians onto land

  • Radiation of amphibians begins

GONDWANA

  • Period ends with another mass extinction


Carboniferous period
Carboniferous Period

  • Sea levels swing widely

  • Amphibians diversify

  • First reptiles

  • Seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms thrive


Permian period
Permian Period

  • Insects, amphibians, and early reptiles in swamp forests


Permian into triassic
Permian into Triassic

  • Major extinction

  • 95% of species are lost

Pangea


The mesozoic era
The Mesozoic Era

  • Divided into three periods

    • Triassic

    • Jurassic

    • Cretaceous

  • The “Age of the Reptiles”

  • Major geologic event was the breakup of Pangea

  • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/Geologictime.html


Triassic period
Triassic Period

  • Seas repopulated after Permian extinction

  • First dinosaurs and mammals

  • Ends with a mass extinction

A therapsid


Jurassic period
Jurassic Period

  • Radiation of the dinosaurs

  • Ended with a mass extinction that ended many dinosaur lineages

ichthyosaur


Cretaceous period
Cretaceous Period

  • Surviving dinosaurs diversify

  • Seedless plants and gymnosperms begin to decline


Rise of flowering plants
Rise of Flowering Plants

angiosperms

200

150

number of genera

ferns

cycads

100

gymnosperms

50

ginkgo

other genera

0

160

140

120

100

80

60

millions of years ago


K t asteroid impact video clip prol of species
K-T Asteroid Impact(Video Clip – Prol. Of species)

  • Theory is that an asteroid impact led to mass extinction

  • Iridium

Cretaceous seaway

land


Cenozoic era
Cenozoic Era

  • Continents collided and mountain ranges arose

  • Mammals underwent adaptive radiation

  • Tropical forests gave way to woodlands and grasslands

  • Most recent Ice Age occurred

  • Humans set stage for possible mass extinction


Paleocene to eocene
Paleocene to Eocene

  • Tropical forests and subtropical forests extended as climates warmed

  • Mammalian lineage diversified


Later cenozoic
Later Cenozoic

  • Climates became cooler and drier

  • Grasslands and woodlands dominated

  • Grazing and browsing animals thrived


At present
At Present

  • Distribution of land masses favors high biodiversity

  • Tropical forests are richest ecosystems

  • In midst of what may be a great mass extinction

  • Human hunters and human activities have increased the pace of extinction



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