The history of life
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The History of Life. R. Jenkins. The Big Bang (Video Clip). 12-15 billion years ago all matter was compressed into a space the size of our sun This was followed by a Sudden instantaneous distribution of matter and energy throughout the known universe.

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The History of Life

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The history of life

The History of Life

R. Jenkins


The big bang video clip

The Big Bang(Video Clip)

  • 12-15 billion years ago all matter was compressed into a space the size of our sun

  • This was followed by a Sudden instantaneous distribution of matter and energy throughout the known universe


Archeon eon and earlier video clip from the big bang

Archeon Eon and Earlier (video clip- From the Big Bang)

  • 4.6 bya: Origin of Earth

  • 4.6 – 3.8 bya

    • Formation of Earth’s crust, atmosphere

    • Chemical and molecular evolution

    • First cells (anaerobic bacteria)


Earth forms how

Earth Forms – How?

  • About 4.6 and 4.5 billion years ago

  • Minerals and ice orbiting the sun started clumping together

  • Heavy metals moved to Earth’s interior, lighter ones floated to surface

  • Produced outer crust and inner mantle


Earth is just right for life

Earth Is “Just Right” for Life

  • Smaller in diameter, gravity would not be great enough to hold onto atmosphere

  • Closer to sun, water would have evaporated

  • Farther from sun, water would have been locked up as ice


First atmosphere

First Atmosphere

  • Hydrogen gas

  • Nitrogen

  • Carbon monoxide

  • Carbon dioxide

  • No gaseous oxygen


Stanley miller s experiment video clip bill nye

Stanley Miller’s Experiment(video clip – Bill Nye)

  • Mixed methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and water

  • Simulated lightning

  • Amino acids and other small molecules formed

gases

boiling water

water containing

organic compounds


Possible sequence

living

cells

enzymes and

other proteins

DNA

RNA

formation of

protein–RNA systems,

evolution of DNA

formation of

lipid spheres

spontaneous formation of lipids,

carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins,

nucleotides under abiotic conditions

Possible Sequence

membrane-bound proto-cells

self-replicating system enclosed in a

selectively permeable, protective lipid sphere


Geologic time line

Geologic Time Line

Geologic Time Line – Long Version

(See Word Documents)


The first cells

The First Cells

  • Originated in Archeon Eon

  • Were prokaryotic heterotrophs

  • Secured energy through anaerobic pathways

    • No oxygen present

    • Relied on glycolysis and fermentation


Proterozoic eon

Proterozoic Eon

  • Origin of photosynthetic eubacteria

  • Oxygen accumulates in atmosphere

  • Origin of aerobic respiration


Evolutionary tree

Evolutionary Tree

ARCHAEBACTERIAL

LINEAGE

ANCESTORS OF

EUKARYOTES

Noncyclic pathway

of photosynthesis

Cyclic pathway of

photosynthesis

ORIGIN OF

PROKARYOTES

Aerobic respiration

3.8 bya

3.2 bya

2.5 bya


Evolutionary tree1

Evolutionary Tree

ARCHAEBACTERIA

Extreme halophiles

Methanogens

Extreme thermophiles

ORIGINS OF ANIMALS

EUKARYOTES

ORIGINS OF EUKARYOTES

Animals

Heterotrophic protistans

ORIGINS OF FUNGI

Fungi

Photosynthetic protistans

ORIGINS OF

MITOCHONDRIA

Plants

ORIGINS OF PLANTS

ORIGINS OF

CHLOROPLASTS

EUBACTERIA

Oxygen-producing

photosynthetic eubacteria

Other photosynthetic eubacteria

Heterotrophic and chemoautotropic eubacteria

1.2 bya

900 mya

435 mya

present


Advantages of organelles

Advantages of Organelles

  • Nuclear envelope may have helped to protect genes from competition with foreign DNA

  • ER channels may have similarly protected vital proteins


Theory of endosymbiosis

Theory of Endosymbiosis

  • Lynn Margulis

  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the descendents of free-living prokaryotic organisms

  • Prokaryotes were engulfed by early eukaryotes and became permanent internal symbionts


The history of life

  • Endosymbiosis (one species living inside another)

1. Endosymbiosis

  • Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells 1.7 billion years ago

  • What are now membrane bound organelles were ingested as food or entered as parasites

EVIDENCE

  • Present day Mitochondria & Chloroplasts have their own DNA which resembles prokaryotic DNA.

  • They replicate their DNA like binary fission in prokaryotes.


Paleozoic era 570 240 mya

Paleozoic Era (570-240 mya)

  • Six periods

    • Cambrian

    • Ordovician

    • Silurian

    • Devonian

    • Carboniferous

    • Permian


Paleozoic era video clip evol of complex

Paleozoic Era(Video Clip – Evol. Of Complex)

  • By early Paleozoic, diverse organisms of all six kingdoms lived in seas

  • During the Silurian and Devonian, plants and animals invaded the land

  • Ended with the greatest known mass extinction and the formation of Pangea


Cambrian period

Cambrian Period

  • Explosive radiation of marine organisms

  • Mass extinction near end of period

    • May have resulted from cooling of seas


Ordovician period

Ordovician Period

  • Adaptive radiation of new reef organisms in warm, shallow seas

  • Increase in diversity of shelled animals

  • Ended with glaciation and mass extinction as Gondwana straddled South Pole


Silurian period

Silurian Period

  • Reef communities recover

  • First land plants

GONDWANA


Silurian into devonian

Silurian into Devonian


Devonian period

Devonian Period

  • Jawed fishes arise, diversify

  • Ancestors of amphibians onto land

  • Radiation of amphibians begins

GONDWANA

  • Period ends with another mass extinction


Carboniferous period

Carboniferous Period

  • Sea levels swing widely

  • Amphibians diversify

  • First reptiles

  • Seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms thrive


Permian period

Permian Period

  • Insects, amphibians, and early reptiles in swamp forests


Permian into triassic

Permian into Triassic

  • Major extinction

  • 95% of species are lost

Pangea


The mesozoic era

The Mesozoic Era

  • Divided into three periods

    • Triassic

    • Jurassic

    • Cretaceous

  • The “Age of the Reptiles”

  • Major geologic event was the breakup of Pangea

  • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/Geologictime.html


Triassic period

Triassic Period

  • Seas repopulated after Permian extinction

  • First dinosaurs and mammals

  • Ends with a mass extinction

A therapsid


Jurassic period

Jurassic Period

  • Radiation of the dinosaurs

  • Ended with a mass extinction that ended many dinosaur lineages

ichthyosaur


Cretaceous period

Cretaceous Period

  • Surviving dinosaurs diversify

  • Seedless plants and gymnosperms begin to decline


Rise of flowering plants

Rise of Flowering Plants

angiosperms

200

150

number of genera

ferns

cycads

100

gymnosperms

50

ginkgo

other genera

0

160

140

120

100

80

60

millions of years ago


K t asteroid impact video clip prol of species

K-T Asteroid Impact(Video Clip – Prol. Of species)

  • Theory is that an asteroid impact led to mass extinction

  • Iridium

Cretaceous seaway

land


Cenozoic era

Cenozoic Era

  • Continents collided and mountain ranges arose

  • Mammals underwent adaptive radiation

  • Tropical forests gave way to woodlands and grasslands

  • Most recent Ice Age occurred

  • Humans set stage for possible mass extinction


Paleocene to eocene

Paleocene to Eocene

  • Tropical forests and subtropical forests extended as climates warmed

  • Mammalian lineage diversified


Later cenozoic

Later Cenozoic

  • Climates became cooler and drier

  • Grasslands and woodlands dominated

  • Grazing and browsing animals thrived


At present

At Present

  • Distribution of land masses favors high biodiversity

  • Tropical forests are richest ecosystems

  • In midst of what may be a great mass extinction

  • Human hunters and human activities have increased the pace of extinction


Video clip evidence for evolution

Video Clip – Evidence for Evolution


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