Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow
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3rd SIG43 Workshop: Dynamics of non-spherical particles in fluid turbulence, Udine, Italy, April 6th - 8th, 2011. Characteristics of Fibre Suspensions in a Turbulent Pipe Flow. Stella Dearing*, Cristian Marchioli , Alfredo Soldati Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine,

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Characteristics of Fibre Suspensions in a Turbulent Pipe Flow

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Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Dynamics of non-spherical particles in fluid turbulence,

Udine, Italy, April 6th - 8th, 2011

Characteristics of Fibre Suspensions in a Turbulent Pipe Flow

Stella Dearing*, CristianMarchioli, Alfredo Soldati

Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine,

Università di Udine, Italy

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Contents

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Applications: Whichindustries benefit

Inertial fibres suspended in turbulent flows are commonly encountered industry

  • Pulp and paper processing

    • Controlling rheological behaviour and fibre orientation distribution crucial to optimiseoperations

  • Furniture Industry

    • Pneumatic transport of fibres

  • Nappy Fabrication

    • Fluff , cellulose fibres, make up 60% of nappy material. Uniform distribution is highly desirable for increased absorption

  • Fibres as an alternative to polymers as a DRA?

    • Examples include the TAPs, medical application, firehouse

    • Fibres provide more modest reductions but improved shear degradation and filterability

Experimental data is required to validate simulation assumptions. Provide industry with practical correlations for sizing of industry equipment (aim not to oversize)

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Motivation: WhyStudy?

Fibre suspensions have complicated rheological properties that are quite different than carrier fluid even at low mass fractions

The physical properties depend on particle spatial distribution and orientation

Fibres rotate/align when subject to velocity gradient –hydrodynamic drag of fibres is f(rotational motion)  controls translational motion

Strong turbulence tends to randomise orientation (BERNSTEIN &SHAPIRO)

BUT coherent structures interact with fibres causing segregation and accumulation (MARCHIOLI et al. PHYS. FLUIDS. 2010)

Where flocculation occurs (network) an momentum adding/momentum reduce effect can occur

Size(s) of fibre relative to turbulent structures

z

ICMF 2010 - Tampa, FL, USA

y


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Set-up: Pipe Circuit measurements

  • IMPRESS Pressure transducers 0-400mBar gauge; 1% FS accuracy

  • Coriolis force mass flow rate meter ± 0.01 m/s

Bulk MeasurementsofPressure

Fluid

Exit to recirculation tank

Pipe ϕ: 10cm (DN100)

,

Fluid

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

ExperimentalParameters

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Pressuredropresults: wood

Plug flow

Mixed flow (DR reduced)

DR increase

No change with respect to Newtonian

Laminar flow

Augmentation of pressure losses in accordance to previous work (AIDUN & XU)

ICMF 2010 - Tampa, FL, USA

Figure (b)


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Pressuredropresults: Nylon

No/little change in pressure losses

in contrast with previous work (W. K. LEE, R. C. VASELESKI & A. B. METZNER)

ICMF 2010 - Tampa, FL, USA


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Set-up: Pipe Circuit measurements

Laser

Mirror

z

Camera

x

  • System details:

    • PCO sensicam 1280 x1024

    • ND Yag laser 1000mJ

    • F = 8hz

Flow Direction

z

x

ICMF 2010 - Tampa, FL, USA


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Software development: PhaseDiscrimination

  • Preprocessing

  • Object Identification

  • Discriminate objects based on length and aspect ratio

  • Ellipse fitting

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Software development: ArtificialImage

Artificial images

  • Extension of intensity distribution of a spherical particle

    • Intensityisgaussianalongwidthof fibre

    • Doesnotchangealonglengthuntilfocalpoints

  • Recreate experimental conditions

    • Create imagelargerthanactualimage

    • Croptosize

    • Includespartiallycapturedfibresasexpected a laser sheet

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Software development: Statisticscalculation and validation

Test Cases:

Aspect ratio 20, no s/w orientation and no intersecting fibres: 2 % underprediction

Aspect ratio 20 with no s/w orientation but intersecting fibres : 5 % underprediction (requires higher number of images for convergance)

Aspect ratio 20 with s/w orientation and intersecting fibres 25 % overprediction for random distribution; 15% for aligned distribution

i

Mean orientations

  • Normalised number density

Projected fibre onto plane  over prediction compared to 3D case by 20%

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Results: Meanorientations

  • Fibres tend to align in the streamwise direction

  • Preferential orientation increases with aspect ratio and decreases with inertia

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Results: Normalisedmeannumber density

  • Instantaneous concentration profiles volumetric fiber number density

  • Near wall peak

  • Decrease of concentration at z+ approximately 1- after which point λhaslittle or no effect on concentrationprofiles

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


Characteristics of fibre suspensions in a turbulent pipe flow

Conclusions

  • No drag reduction for macroscopic fibre additives (pressure drop & PIV results)

    • For more detailed information on decomposed flow field we are in the process of doing error analysis of phase discrimination PIV algorithm using a DNS flow field

  • Dimensional arguments back this up

  • Mean orientation and number density data qualitatively agrees with DNS data  promising.

    • Results for smaller Reτ

    • Analysis of DNS results

  • How to convert number densities to concentrations. This is a an important issue when using PIV for non spherical particle

3rd SIG43 Workshop:

Udine, Italy, 2011


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