1 / 34

Ecosystems and Food Webs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

What are the components in an ecosystem?. Ecosystems and Food Webs. 10 MINUTES. I will come around to answer AND ask questions. Ecology and Life. Ecology - study of relationships between organisms and their environment.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Ecosystems and Food Webs' - nyla

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

10 minutes

  • I will come around to answer AND ask questions

Ecology and life
Ecology and Life

Ecology- study of relationships between organisms and their environment

  • Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients

  • Ecosphere or Biosphere

    • All earth's ecosystems

  • Ecosystem

    • Community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy

  • Community

    • Complex interacting network of plants, animals, and microorganisms

  • Habitat

    • Place where a population or individual organism naturally lives

  • Genetic Diversity

    • Populations that are dynamic groups that change in size, age distribution, density, and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions

  • Population

    • Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time

Type of nutrients
Type of Nutrients

  • Any atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduce

  • Ex: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen,

  • nitrogen… etc

  • Nutrient

  • Macronutrient

    • nutrient that organisms need in large amount

    • Ex: phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron … etc

  • Micronutrient

    • nutrient that organism need in small amount

    • Ex: zinc, sodium, copper… etc


  • Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%)

  • Nuclear fusion

  • Sun has existed for 5 billion years

  • Sun will stay for another 5-6 billion years

  • Visible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone

Solar energy
Solar Energy

  • 72% of solar energy warms the lands

  • 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria

  • Powers the cycling of matter and weather system

  • Distributes heat and fresh water

Living organisms in ecosystem
Living Organisms in Ecosystem

Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.

  • Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun


  • Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue


  • Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight

    • Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabs

    • Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat

Consumers or heterotrophs
Consumers or Heterotrophs

  • Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains


  • Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers

  • Feed directly on producers

    • Deer, goats, rabbits


  • Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers

  • Feed only on primary consumer

    • Lion, Tiger


  • Tertiary (higher-level) consumer

  • Feed only on other carnivores

    • Wolf


  • Omnivores- consumers that eat both plants and animals

    • Ex: pigs, humans, bears


  • Scavengers- feed on dead organisms

    • Vultures, flies, crows, shark


  • Detritivores- live off detritus

    • Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.

  • Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.


  • Decomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organisms

    • Food sources for worms and insects

    • Biodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers

Range of tolerance
Range of Tolerance

  • The range of conditions that must be maintained for a population of a species to survive

    • Differences in genetic makeup, health, and age.

    • Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass

Limiting factor
Limiting Factor

  • too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.

    • Ex: water, light, and soil

    • No water in the desert limit growth of plants

    • Ex: Farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.

Dissolved oxygen content
Dissolved Oxygen Content

  • Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.

    • Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem

What is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance
What is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance

  • Limiting factors are biotic or abiotic factors that limit the growth of a species, while the range of tolerance defines the set of conditions in which an organism can survive. -

Homework tolerance

  • Learn about a specific ecosystem situation…. Be prepared to share out tomorrow!

Respiration tolerance

  • Aerobic Respiration

    • Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water

    • Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy

  • Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation

    • Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen