Ecosystems and food webs
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What are the components in an ecosystem?. Ecosystems and Food Webs. 10 MINUTES. I will come around to answer AND ask questions. Ecology and Life. Ecology - study of relationships between organisms and their environment.

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Ecosystems and Food Webs

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Ecosystems and food webs

What are the components in an ecosystem?

Ecosystems and Food Webs


10 minutes

10 MINUTES

  • I will come around to answer AND ask questions


Ecology and life

Ecology and Life

Ecology- study of relationships between organisms and their environment

  • Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients


Ecosystems and food webs

  • Ecosphere or Biosphere

    • All earth's ecosystems

  • Ecosystem

    • Community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy

  • Community

    • Complex interacting network of plants, animals, and microorganisms

  • Habitat

    • Place where a population or individual organism naturally lives

  • Genetic Diversity

    • Populations that are dynamic groups that change in size, age distribution, density, and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions

  • Population

    • Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time


Ecosystems and food webs

Community on human body


Type of nutrients

Type of Nutrients

  • Any atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduce

  • Ex: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen,

  • nitrogen… etc

  • Nutrient

  • Macronutrient

    • nutrient that organisms need in large amount

    • Ex: phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron … etc

  • Micronutrient

    • nutrient that organism need in small amount

    • Ex: zinc, sodium, copper… etc


Ecosystems and food webs

www.sws.uiuc.edu/nitro/biggraph.asp


Ecosystems and food webs

Sun

  • Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%)

  • Nuclear fusion

  • Sun has existed for 5 billion years

  • Sun will stay for another 5-6 billion years

  • Visible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone


Solar energy

Solar Energy

  • 72% of solar energy warms the lands

  • 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria

  • Powers the cycling of matter and weather system

  • Distributes heat and fresh water


Ecosystems and food webs

www.bom.gov.au/lam/climate/levelthree/ climch/clichgr1.htm


Living organisms in ecosystem

Living Organisms in Ecosystem

Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.

  • Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun


Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

  • Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue


Chemosynthesis

Chemosynthesis-

  • Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight

    • Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabs

    • Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat


Consumers or heterotrophs

Consumers or Heterotrophs

  • Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains


Consumers

Consumers

  • Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers

  • Feed directly on producers

    • Deer, goats, rabbits

http://www.holidays.net/easter/bunny1.htm


Consumers1

Consumers

  • Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers

  • Feed only on primary consumer

    • Lion, Tiger


Consumers2

Consumers

  • Tertiary (higher-level) consumer

  • Feed only on other carnivores

    • Wolf


Consumers3

Consumers

  • Omnivores- consumers that eat both plants and animals

    • Ex: pigs, humans, bears


Consumers4

Consumers

  • Scavengers- feed on dead organisms

    • Vultures, flies, crows, shark


Consumers5

Consumers

  • Detritivores- live off detritus

    • Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.

  • Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.


Consumers6

Consumers

  • Decomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organisms

    • Food sources for worms and insects

    • Biodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers


Range of tolerance

Range of Tolerance

  • The range of conditions that must be maintained for a population of a species to survive

    • Differences in genetic makeup, health, and age.

    • Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass


Limiting factor

Limiting Factor

  • too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.

    • Ex: water, light, and soil

    • No water in the desert limit growth of plants

    • Ex: Farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.


Dissolved oxygen content

Dissolved Oxygen Content

  • Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.

    • Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem


What is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance

What is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance

  • Limiting factors are biotic or abiotic factors that limit the growth of a species, while the range of tolerance defines the set of conditions in which an organism can survive. -


Homework

Homework

  • Learn about a specific ecosystem situation…. Be prepared to share out tomorrow!


Respiration

Respiration

  • Aerobic Respiration

    • Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water

    • Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy

  • Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation

    • Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen


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