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4-2 Quantum Theory. Planck’s Theory. Max Planck predicted accurately how the spectrum of radiation emitted by an object changes with temperature. Proposed that there is a fundamental restriction on the amounts of energy that an object emits or absorbs, called quantum. Means FIXED AMOUNTS.

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Planck s theory
Planck’s Theory

  • Max Planck predicted accurately how the spectrum of radiation emitted by an object changes with temperature.




  • Planck’s Constant (h) = 6.6262 x 10 absorb in any amount.-34 J-s (Joule x second)

  • Energies absorbed or emitted by atoms are quantized, which means that their values are restricted to certain quantities. Energy is not continuous


Example
Example absorb in any amount.

  • Imagine a car’s fundamental quantum of energy corresponds to a speed of 10 km/hr. If the car has 7 quanta of energy, it will have a speed of 70 km/hr. If the car has 9 quanta of energy, it will have a speed of 90 km/hr. This shows that a car can only move in multiples of 10 km/hr (in this case). Speeds such as 88 km/hr and 41 km/hr are impossible




The photoelectric effect
The Photoelectric Effect absorb in any amount.

  • In the photoelectric effect, electrons are ejected from the surface of a metal when light shines on it.

  • Einstein realized that Planck’s idea of energy quanta could explain this.

  • Said that Light consists of quanta of energy that behave like tiny particles, called PHOTONS




Dual nature of radiant energy
Dual Nature of Radiant Energy the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  • Arthur Compton later demonstrated that photons can collide with electrons.

  • Photons behave like a particle that always travels at the speed of light.

  • E = mc2 =h


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