HND – 2. Individual Behavior. Lim Sei Kee @ cK. Introduction. How biographical characteristics (such as age and gender) and ability (which includes intelligence) affect employee performance and satisfaction. . Biographical Characteristics.
Lim SeiKee @ cK
How biographical characteristics (such as age and gender) and ability (which includes intelligence) affect employee performance and satisfaction.
Objective and easily obtained personal characteristics.
An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
The abilities needed to perform mental activities- for thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.
General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall intelligence.
No correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction.
Examples: IQ (Intelligence quotient) tests, GCE ‘O’ level.
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
Experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of bell, conducted in the early-1900s by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov.
Meat: Unconditioned stimulus
Reaction that took place: Unconditioned response
Bell: Conditioned stimulus
Behavior of the dog: Conditioned response
This is a passive form of learning. It is reflexive and not voluntary – not the best theory for OB learning.
# Your romantic partner always uses the same shampoo. Soon, the smell of that shampoo makes you feel happy.
# You have a meal at a fast food restaurant that causes food poisoning. The next time you see a sign for that restaurant, you feel nauseous.
# The nurse says “Now this won’t hurt a bit” just before stabbing you with a needle. The next time you hear “This won’t hurt” you cringe in fear.
Following a response with something pleasant.
Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant.
Attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviours being exhibited (eliminate undesirable behavior.)
Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior. its purpose is to reduce unwanted behavior.
Schedules Of Reinforcement : The timing of the behavioural consequences that follow a given behavior.
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
Modern managers and OB theorists are using cognitive approaches to shaping behavior.