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The Irish Landscape. Tortoises and Hares: Dissolution, Erosion and Isostasy in Landscape Evolution. MJ Simms, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms , v29, p477, 2004 http://www.habitas.org.uk/staff_pdf_files/Tortoises.pdf. How can we explain this patttern of uplands and lowlands?.

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The Irish Landscape

Tortoises and Hares:

Dissolution, Erosion and Isostasy in Landscape Evolution

MJ Simms, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v29, p477, 2004

http://www.habitas.org.uk/staff_pdf_files/Tortoises.pdf






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Millstone Grit & Coal Measures surface

Carb. Limestone

Old Red Sandstone

Limestone is sandwiched between clastic silicate rocks


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Old Red Sandstone surface

Manchester Town Hall

Silicate Rocks -Sandstones

Millstone Grit



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Denudation of Limestones & Silicates surface

Slow but steady wins the race


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Denudation of Limestones & Silicates surface

Slow but steady wins the race


Denudation mechanisms particle entrainment silicates versus dissolution limestones l.jpg
Denudation Mechanisms surfaceParticle Entrainment (silicates)versusDissolution (limestones)



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Denudation of silicate rocks occurs largely through mechanical erosion, mainly by water and sometimes by ice


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Denudation of silicate rocks occurs largely through mechanical erosion, mainly by water and sometimes by ice


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Dissolution contributes to fragmentation of the rock but there is no significant volume change. Without erosion, the weathered material remains in situ.


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Mere contact between rock and water is not enough to effect erosion. The sediment must be entrained.


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Entrainment is a rate-limited process: erosion. The sediment must be entrained.

A threshold velocity exists below which erosion does not occur



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Limestones low speeds.


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Limestone is dissolved slowly by water. This process forms many different types of solutional sculpting, together called karren. Since water moves downwards under gravity, the limestone is dissolved downwards to form solution pits, solution runnels, the familiar grikes of limestone pavements, and even vast potholes sometimes hundreds of metres deep. 

Solution Runnels


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Tube Karren many different types of solutional sculpting, together called


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Limestone Pavement: many different types of solutional sculpting, together called

Characteristic block joints in limestone enlarged when mildly acidic rainwater causes solution weathering

e.g. The Burren, Co. Clare


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Streams disappearing underground and resurging from underground in limestone country.


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Malham Cove underground in limestone country.

Streams resurging from underground in limestone country.


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Limestone (Karst) Scenery underground in limestone country.

Surface mechanical erosion of limestone is relatively unimportant. Most of the drainage occurs underground.


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Denudation Timescales underground in limestone country.


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Fault Rocks underground in limestone country.

Little mechanical erosion occurs for much of the time



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Limestone dissolution equates to surface lowering. in a single event.

Lowering rates seldom exceed a few mm per year.


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Paragenetic Cave Passages in a single event.

But limestone dissolution occurs most of the time

Paragenesis occurs in completely flooded conduits where the flow rates are too slow to transport particles. Simultaneous dissolution of the roof and deposition of fine sediment demonstrates the contrast between velocity-threshold-constrained particle movement and unconstrained dissolution


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Denudation Timescales in a single event.

Denudation of limestone occurs whenever CO2 under-saturated water is in contact with the rock. Denudation of silicate rocks require high flow velocities.

Denudation is more continuous through time on limestone than on other rocks.


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Vegetation Cover in a single event.Denudation Inhibitor (silicates)versusDenudation Enhancer (limestones)


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Vegetation forms a physical barrier between flowing water and rock/regolith beneath. It also absorbs the energy of impacting raindrops.


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Fault Populations and rock/regolith beneath. It also absorbs the energy of impacting raindrops.

Ground and near-ground cover provides the greatest capacity for energy absorption


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Vegetation aids development of soil, which protects underlying rocks from mechanical erosion.


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Effect of deforestation and cultivation illustrates importance of soil.

Change from forestry to agricultural land use can increase sediment yield by up to a factor of 20.



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Stalagtites & stalagmites of redeposited calcite in cave passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone


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Effect of Climate passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone


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Arid Climates passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Little water, so mechanical weathering dominates dissolution.

Weathering is mainly by occasional high runoff events.

Limestones are often mechanically stronger than silicate rocks, so they tend to form high ground.


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Temperate Humid Climates passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

High rainfall, so limestone dissolution important, accentuated by vegetation.

Vegetation protects silicate rocks from mechanical erosion.

Long-term surface lowering rates for limestones may exceed those for silicate rocks.


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IRELAND passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Temperate, humid climate

Limestones weather faster than silicates


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Implications for passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestoneLandscape Development

Considering Ireland’s climate, we expect to see limestone outcrops corresponding to lowlands and silicate outcrops corresponding to high ground.


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Galway granite passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Leinster granite

Munster Basin - Old Red Sanstone

Uplands underlain by silicate rock


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Millstone Grit & Coal Measures passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Carb. Limestone

Old Red Sandstone

Limestone is sandwiched between clastic silicate rocks


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Central lowlands passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Lowlands underlain by limestone


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Millstone Grit & Coal Measures passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Carb. Limestone

Old Red Sandstone

Limestone is sandwiched between clastic silicate rocks


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But . . . passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone


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Leitrim & Fermanagh passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Burren

Uplands underlain by limestone - Problem?


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The Burren, Co. Clare - An upland region passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone


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Millstone Grit & Coal Measures passages at shallow depth beneath soil and vegetation covered limestone shows that water percolating through the soil still dissolves the limestone

Carb. Limestone

Old Red Sandstone

Limestone is sandwiched between clastic silicate rocks


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Almost all of Ireland’s high ground corresponds with sillicate outcrops.

Much of this topographic relief can be ascribed to relatively fast rates of dissolutional denudation on limestone outcrops in comparison with erosional denudation across silicate outcrops.

The exceptions are where limestone has only recently been exhumed from beneath a silicate cover.


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Ireland’s landscape sillicate outcrops.

Hexagonal cooling joints in basalt

e.g. Giant's Causeway


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