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SE411: 2005/Mar/10. Systems Engineering. Andrew Schaumberg. What?. The function of systems engineering is to guide the engineering of complex systems. -Kossiakoff and Sweet, Systems Engineering. Why?. Software is just one aspect of device implementation.

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slide2
What?

The function of systems engineering is to guide the

engineering of complex

systems.

-Kossiakoff and Sweet,

Systems Engineering

Why?

  • Software is just one aspect of device implementation.
  • SE concepts applicable to physical implementation.
  • Holistic benefits. Coupling. Optimization.

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

guitar
Guitar

Case Study: Guitar

  • Why?
  • Familiar system.
  • Reengineered already.
  • Simple architecture.

Architecture revision history 

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide4

Lute

  • Requirements:
  • Powerless
  • Easy to build
  • Durable
  • Pleasant
  • Easy to play
  • Cons:
  • Terrible to tune
  • Poor sustain

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide5

Lute successors

  • Mandolin
  • Tuned better
  • High pitch, bad sustain
  • Acoustic guitar
  • Tunes like mandolin
  • Low pitch, sustain a bit better

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide6

Problem: Tone control

  • Acoustic resonant cavities fixed
  • Solution: Transduce sound
  • Electric signal easy to shape
  • Options:
  • Microphone
  • Pickup

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide7

Microphone

Pro: Cheap add-on

Con: Generally poor frequency response

Pickup

Pro: Simplifies architecture

Con: Requires architecture reengineering

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide8

Consider Requirements

  • Need a quick fix for some old acoustics?
  • Get a mic
  • Need something new that is cheap and lasts?
  • Get an electric

Rough SE analogy:

Functional vs. Architectural reengineering

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide9

Typical build quality of electric guitar

  • Sucks!
  • Component quality
  • Ground loops
  • Shielding
  • Electric shock

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide10

So yeah, it sucks. So we make our own.

And all is good.

Until we realize it still sucks…

...but for different reasons.

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide11

Problem: The pickup select switch

  • Combinations hard-wired
  • Solution:
  • Hardwire new combinations
  • Add a bigger switch

What just happened?

Functional vs. Architectural reengineering

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide12

Possible configurations amongst combinations

  • Coil selection
  • Coil wiring
  • Coil phasing

What to do?

Start working.

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide13

Electromechanical: toggles, rotaries, pots

  • Need functionality? Add switches!
  • Pros:
  • Simple, at first
  • No added power consumption
  • Cons:
  • Heavy real-estate costs
  • Doesn’t scale

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide14

Solid-state: BJTs, MOSFETs, vacuum tubes

  • Switches are now just logical inputs
  • Pros:
  • Simplifies architecture
  • Cheap
  • Cons:
  • Power required
  • Scales terribly

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide15

IC: Integrated circuit

  • Solid-state now just does signal routing
  • Pros:
  • Black-boxing saves devel and maint time
  • Still cheap
  • Cons:
  • Limited by vendor supplies
  • Scales poorly

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide16

MCU: MicroController Unit

  • ICs, if used at all, now only supplement MCU functionality
  • Pros:
  • Eliminates need for most ICs
  • Programmable
  • Cons:
  • High power consumption
  • Hurts wallet
  • Requires programmer

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide17

Choose your MCU architecture wisely

  • ARM: Most popular. Pure, small RISC.
  • Atmel AVR: C efficient. Dedicated hobbyist following.
  • Basic Stamp: Fast learning curve.
  • Dedicated hobbyist following.
  • Intel 8051: Very popular. Boolean processing engine.
  • Microchip PIC: Wide supplementary software support.
  • Dedicated hobbyist following.
  • Motorola 68xx: Highly optimized. HCF instruction.
  • TI: Cool calculator programs in BASIC.
  • Dedicated hobbyist following.

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide18

SoC: System on a Chip

  • Only need interface, routing, and this chip
  • Pros:
  • Entire system on a single chip
  • Compile hardware from software
  • Cons:
  • Very high power consumption, especially FPGA
  • Very hurtful on wallet, especially ASIC

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide19

What just happened?

Layered architecture

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide20

Software options

  • Low level, e.g. assembler
  • Mid level, e.g. C
  • High level, e.g. OS

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide21

Requirements

  • Standard
  • Do everything a typical electric guitar can
  • Built better
  • Configurable
  • Selections, wiring, phasing
  • Save/Recall configurations
  • Intonation
  • Built-in tuner
  • Harmonized infinite sustain
  • Communications
  • MIDI
  • OSC
  • File transfer

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide22

Harmonized infinite sustain

  • Strum once, sing forever
  • EBow
  • Fernandez

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide23

MIDI

  • Serial
  • Note
  • Velocity

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide24

OSC

  • Application level protocol
  • Ethernet
  • Wrap MIDI

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide25

File transfer

  • Internet Protocol suite: IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, HTTP, FTP
  • USB

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide26

Embedded OSes

  • Pick something with requirements in mind
  • Examples:
  • AvrX - Assembly. Speed.
  • Contiki - C. Dynamic.
  • DCOS - C. Minimalist.
  • NutOS - C. Networking.
  • Salvo - C. Small.
  • TinyOS - Pseudo-C. Static modules.

Oh my Gosh! COTS!

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide27

Prototype releases

  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gold

Software extends hardware.

Both play well together in a good system.

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide28

References

Motorola 6800. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6800

Intel 8051. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8051

Arm architecture. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARM_architecture

Atmel AVR 8-Bit RISC. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.atmel.com/products/AVR/

AvrX. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.barello.net/avrx/

BASIC Stamp. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_Stamp

ConfiGuitar Info Index. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.uwplatt.edu/~schaumba/configuitar/

Dunkels, Adam. The Contiki Operating System. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.sics.se/%7Eadam/contiki/

Hofmeijer, Dullman, Jansen, and Havinga. DCOS, A REAL-TIME LIGHT-WEIGHT DATA CENTRIC OPERATING SYSTEM.

Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://wwwes.cs.utwente.nl/smartsurroundings/publications/Hofmeijer04.pdf

The Amazing EBow. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.ebow.com/

Electric Guitar. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_guitar

Ethernet. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet

Fernandes - Sustainer Audio Demos. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.fernandesguitars.com/sustainer/susdemos.html

Internet Protocol. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol

Les Paul 2005. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Paul

Lute. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lute

EMUSIC-L - MIDI specification. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/multimedia/emusic/info-docs-FAQs/MIDI-doc/

MIPS architecture. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIPS_architecture

nesC: A Programming Language for Deeply Networked Systems. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://nescc.sourceforge.net/

Ethernut Software. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.ethernut.de/en/software.html

Atchley, John. GuitarNuts.com - The Internet Home for Wayward Pickers. Retrieved: 2005/02/27.

http://www.guitarnuts.com/index.php

OpenSoundControl. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.cnmat.berkeley.edu/OpenSoundControl/

OpenSound Control. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenSound_Control

PIC microcontroller. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PIC_microcontroller

Stang, Pascal. Procyon AVRlib - C-Language Function Library for Atmel AVR Processors.

Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://hubbard.engr.scu.edu/embedded/avr/avrlib/

Point-to-Point Protocol. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol

Pumpkin: Salvo, the RTOS that runs in tiny places. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.pumpkininc.com/

Han, Rengaswamy and Shea. Reconfigurable Sensor Networks with SOS. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://deerhound.ats.ucla.edu:

7777/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/NEWS_EVENTS/EVENTS/

04_REVIEW_POSTERS/2ND_ANNUAL_REVIEW_POSTERS_FILES/SOS.PDF

Texas Intruments. Retrieved: 2005/03/09. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments

TinyOS Community Forum || An open-source OS for the networked sensor regime.. Retrieved: 2005/02/27. http://www.tinyos.net/

Verilog. Retrieved: 2005/03/07. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verilog

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

slide29

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg, Systems Engineering

Questions?

SE411: 2005/Mar/10, Andrew Schaumberg

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