In Search of Useful Theory of Innovation By Richard R. Nelson and Sydney G. Winter . 발표자 : 이기영 , 한혜나. Introduction . 기존 이론이 가진 문제점 혁신에 관한 knowledge 와 research 가 산발적으로 흩어짐 연구의 중심이 production 이 얼마나 fit 한가와 어떻게 shift 하는가에 있음 기존 이론이 간과한 혁신의 속성 근본적으로 가진 불확실성 (Uncertainty)
발표자: 이기영, 한혜나
기존 이론이 가진 문제점
혁신에 관한 knowledge와 research가 산발적으로 흩어짐
연구의 중심이 production 이 얼마나 fit 한가와 어떻게 shift 하는가에 있음
기존 이론이 간과한 혁신의 속성
근본적으로 가진 불확실성(Uncertainty)
산업부문별로 혁신을 지원하는 institutional structure가 매우 다양함
Productivity growth를 theoretical structure로 삼는 것이 좋지 않은 이유
project selection can be regarded as an R & D strategy.
Often it is possible to identify a few R & D strategies that are prevalent in a particular sector in a particular era.
Algorithm for calculating an optimum
o In many cases natural trajectories are specific to a particular technology or broadly defined ‘technological regime’
- ex) In airframe design, theoretical understanding (at a relatively mundane level) always has indicated that there are advantages of getting a plane to fly higher where air resistance is lower. This leads designers to think of pressurizing the cabin, demanding aircraft engines that will operate effectively at higher altitudes, etc.
o the selection environment determines how relative use of different technologies changes over time.
o In almost all economic sectors the firms - for-profit private organizations, public agencies, individual professionals - are subject to monitoring mechanisms which influence the innovations that score well or poorly according to the objectives of the firms
o a second innovation spreading mechanism that needs to be considered - imitation
o General model of the selection environment can be built from specification of these three elements: the de~nition of ‘worth’ or
o Successful innovation leads to both higher profit for the innovator and to profitable investment opportunities.
o Both the visible profits of the innovators and the losses experienced by the laggers stimulate the latter to try to imitate.
o A hallmark of nonmarket sectors is that the separation of interests between firms and customers is not as sharply defined as in market sectors.
innovation can help make thinking about policy issues more sophisticated than has been the norm.
o there is far more to institutional variation than differences in the average size or market power of firms. In some of the sectors the critical institutions are not firms at all in the ordinary sense (e.g., medical care, garbage collection, etc.).