Chemistry 231
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Chemistry 231. Chapter 3 – Enthalpy and Internal Energy: The Importance of State Functions. The Properties of the Pressure, P. Let’s examine the pressure of any system as a function of T and V. The Isothermal Compressibility. For a fluid system or a solid Isothermal Compressibility.

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Chemistry 231

Chemistry 231

Chapter 3 – Enthalpy and Internal Energy: The Importance of State Functions


The properties of the pressure p
The Properties of the Pressure, P

Let’s examine the pressure of any system as a function of T and V


The isothermal compressibility
The Isothermal Compressibility

  • For a fluid system or a solid

    • Isothermal Compressibility


Coefficient of thermal expansion
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

  • For solids and fluid systems

    • The coefficient of thermal expansion


The final expression
The Final Expression

Assume that we will write pressure as a function of T and V


The properties of u
The Properties of U

In general, we write U as a function of T and V


Isothermal changes in u
Isothermal Changes in U

Examine the second partial derivative


The joule experiment
The Joule Experiment

O

O

O

O

C

C

F

F

50

120

100

40

30

80

20

60

10

40

0

20

10

0

20

20

30

40

40

60

50

A

T1, Vm,1, P1

B

Stirrer

Thermal insulation

Valve


The joule coefficient
The Joule Coefficient

is known as the Joule coefficient, J.

The partial derivative


Internal energy and the joule coefficient
Internal Energy and the Joule Coefficient

The change in the internal energy under isothermal conditions is related to the Joule Coefficient


Relating c p and c v
Relating CP and CV

  • In general

For an ideal gas


The properties of h
The Properties of H

In general, we write H as a function of T and P


The constant pressure heat capacity
The Constant Pressure Heat Capacity

Define the constant pressure heat capacity, CP


Isothermal changes in h
Isothermal Changes in H

Examine the second partial derivative


The joule thomson experiment
The Joule-Thomson Experiment

Thermal insulation

O

O

O

O

C

O

C

O

O

O

F

F

C

C

F

F

50

120

50

120

100

40

100

40

30

80

30

80

20

20

60

60

10

10

40

40

0

0

20

20

10

10

0

0

20

20

20

20

30

30

40

40

40

40

60

50

60

50

T2, P2, Vm,2

T1, P1, Vm,1

Porous Plug


The joule thomson coefficient
The Joule-Thomson Coefficient

is known as the Joule-Thomson coefficient, JT.

The partial derivative


Relating h to the joule thompson coefficient
Relating H to the Joule-Thompson Coefficient

The change in the enthalpy under constant pressure conditions is related to the Joule-Thomson Coefficient


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