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### Chemistry 231

Chapter 3 – Enthalpy and Internal Energy: The Importance of State Functions

The Properties of the Pressure, P

Let’s examine the pressure of any system as a function of T and V

The Isothermal Compressibility

- For a fluid system or a solid
- Isothermal Compressibility

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

- For solids and fluid systems
- The coefficient of thermal expansion

The Final Expression

Assume that we will write pressure as a function of T and V

The Properties of U

In general, we write U as a function of T and V

Isothermal Changes in U

Examine the second partial derivative

The Joule Experiment

O

O

O

O

C

C

F

F

50

120

100

40

30

80

20

60

10

40

0

20

10

0

20

20

30

40

40

60

50

A

T1, Vm,1, P1

B

Stirrer

Thermal insulation

Valve

Internal Energy and the Joule Coefficient

The change in the internal energy under isothermal conditions is related to the Joule Coefficient

The Properties of H

In general, we write H as a function of T and P

The Constant Pressure Heat Capacity

Define the constant pressure heat capacity, CP

Isothermal Changes in H

Examine the second partial derivative

The Joule-Thomson Experiment

Thermal insulation

O

O

O

O

C

O

C

O

O

O

F

F

C

C

F

F

50

120

50

120

100

40

100

40

30

80

30

80

20

20

60

60

10

10

40

40

0

0

20

20

10

10

0

0

20

20

20

20

30

30

40

40

40

40

60

50

60

50

T2, P2, Vm,2

T1, P1, Vm,1

Porous Plug

The Joule-Thomson Coefficient

is known as the Joule-Thomson coefficient, JT.

The partial derivative

Relating H to the Joule-Thompson Coefficient

The change in the enthalpy under constant pressure conditions is related to the Joule-Thomson Coefficient

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