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The Revolution Begins

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Day 2. The Revolution Begins. Unit 4, Journal #1. There are many problems that you as a teenager face every day. Because of this, we all have heard complaint after complaint. Now is time for you to air these grievances.

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unit 4 journal 1
Unit 4, Journal #1
  • There are many problems that you
  • as a teenager face every day.
  • Because of this, we all have heard complaint after complaint. Now is time for you to air these grievances.
  • List any complaints that you have about the treatment of young people…
  • Then, share with a partner.
the battle of bunker hill

General Thomas Gage decides to retaliate against the militiamen who had dug in on Breed’s Hill.

  • June 17, 1775-
    • Gage sent 2,400 redcoats out to the hill.
    • Sweating beneath their heavy wool uniforms, they began marching up the hill in their customary lines.
    • The colonists held fire until the last minute, then began firing, killing many British soldiers in the process.

Why is this so successful?

-Underprepared (mentally, physically)

    • -Most powerful army in the world
    • - Low on gun powder, few bayonets
    • -”Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”
The Battle of Bunker Hill
the battle of bunker hill1

The next lines of British make a second attack, not giving up, then a third.

  • The third attack finally succeeded because the militiamen had run out of ammunition.
    • The colonists lost 450 men, while the British suffered 1,000 casualties.
  • This can be considered the deadliest battle of the Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
the olive branch petition

Second Continental Congress was readying the colonies for war though still hoping for peace…


  • Most of the delegates still felt strong loyalty to the crown.
    • They blamed the bloodshed on the individual soldiers that had attacked us, not on the King himself.
The Olive Branch Petition
the olive branch petition1

July 8, 1775-

    • Congress sends the King an “Olive Branch Petition”
      • Urges a return to the former harmony between Britain and the colonies.
    • King George rejects the petition and issues a proclamation back to the colonies.
      • It states that since the colonies are in rebellion, he is urging Parliament to order a naval blockade of the American coastline.

It’s on!!!

The Olive Branch Petition
the olive branch petition2

Many people found fault with Britain’s actions; however they remained loyal to their King.

Many were uncertain about “independence.”

BUT, in the months following the Olive Branch Petition, colonial public opinion began to shift.

The Olive Branch Petition
thomas paine s common sense

Anonymous 47-page pamphlet essay

Attacks King George and the monarchy

Argues that the King is responsible for the tyranny.

Paine declared that the time had come for colonists to proclaim an independent republic.

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
thomas paine s common sense1

Paine argues that independence …

  • Is America’s “destiny”
  • Would allow America to trade freely with other nations
  • Would allow America to win foreign aid from British enemies
  • Would give Americans the chance to create a better society (social and economic opportunities for all)

Common Sense was widely read (approx. 500,000 copies were sold) and widely applauded

George Washington:

    • “I find Common Sense is working a powerful change in the minds of many men”
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
drafting a declaration

May 1776

    • North Carolina declared itself as independent
    • Majority of Virginians told their delegates that they too favored independence
  • The Continental Congress decides to urge each colony to form its own government.
Drafting a Declaration
drafting a declaration1

Congress appointed a committee to draw up a formal declaration

    • Should explain the colonies’ actions to King George
  • Thomas Jefferson is chosen to express the points of the committee.
    • Broad knowledge
    • Skillful prose
Drafting a Declaration
drafting a declaration2

Jefferson writes the Declaration of Independence, which draws on the concepts of philosopher John Locke.

    • “Natural rights of man”  given by God
          • Life
          • Liberty
          • Property
    • If government becomes tyrannical, people have the right to resist it.
Drafting a Declaration
drafting a declaration3

“All men are created equal”

    • What does this really mean?
      • Jefferson is forced to drop a passage against the slave trade.
      • Does not mean women or non-white members of society.
  • July 2, 1776
    • Delegates voted unanimously that the colonies were free.
    • Adopted the Declaration on July 4th
Drafting a Declaration