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BIOCHEMISTRY 生物化学 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BIOCHEMISTRY 生物化学. 2011.08.30. PLEASE TURN OFF OR SILENCE YOUR PHONE. Lecturers: Wang, Fei ( 王菲 ) Ph.D College of Biotechonology Institute of Sericulture & Systems Biology Li, Guanrong ( 李关荣 ) Ph.D College of Agronomy and Biotechnology Office Hours: Tuesday, 4:00-5:30PM

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Lecturers: Wang, Fei () Ph.D

College of Biotechonology

Institute of Sericulture & Systems Biology

Li, Guanrong () Ph.D

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology

Office Hours: Tuesday, 4:00-5:30PM

Facultys Office (1)


Textbooks & References

  • (

  • Lehninger Principles of BiochemistryFourth Edition

    David L. Nelson Michael M. Cox

    W.H. Freeman and Company

Grading Method

  • : 20% (-7/; 3= 0)

  • : 15%X2





  • : 50%

What is Biochemistry?

Biochemistry describes in molecular terms the structures,mechanisms, and chemical processes shared byall organisms and provides organizing principles thatunderlie life in all its diverse forms, principles we referto collectively as the molecular logic of life.


Major aspects

  • various types of biomolecules

  • biochemical reactions, enzymes

  • bioenergetics

  • Metabolism, biodegradation & biosynthesis of biomolecules

  • information pathway and regulation

Why We Study Biochemistry

  • Because it is the mandatory course, we need its credits for graduation

  • Because it is the foundation of other bio-courses (cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, immunology, etc), we need to have a solid background for further studies

  • Because it is required in most graduate school entrance exams (bio-related majors), we need a high score

  • Because it is the routine questions on job interviews (bio-related), we need to answer them correctly and smartly

Why We Study Biochemistry

  • Why blood type A cant be transfused into the person with type B?

  • Why our muscle feels sore after an exhausting sport game?

  • Why penicillin only kills bacteria not hosts?

  • Why some silkworm larvae are transparent?

  • How silk protein changes from liquid state to solid state?

  • What other applications does silkworm have?

Because it is all about life!

How to study Biochemistry

  • Prepare yourself with the upcoming classes

  • Come to the class and take notes

  • Understand the classical experiments and thoughts that led to the foundation of principles

  • Keep in mind certain formula, structures, conventions and reactions

  • Be aware with the degree of speculativeness on certain models

  • Find out the aspects that need further studies (your interest)

Biomolecules Are Constructed by a Variety of carbon bonding

Biomolecules Are Compounds of Carbon with a Variety of Functional Groups


Macromolecules Are Polymers of block-building molecules

Proteins: polymers of amino acids

Poly-saccharides: polymers of sugars

Lipids: composed by fatty acids, glycerol, choline,.

Nucleic acids: polymers of nucleotides

Organization of Biomolecules

Configuration and Conformation

Configuration: the fixed spatial arrangement of atoms

Stereoisomers: molecules with the same chemical bonds but different stereochemistry-different configuration

Geometric isomerism/cis-trans isomerism:/



Optical isomerism:

Chiral center : A carbon atom with four different substituents asymmetric arranged 4

A molecule with only one chiral carbon can have two stereoisomers; when two or more (n) chiral carbons are present, there can be 2nstereoisomers.



c: l:


mirror image

Enantiomers (): stereoisomers are mirror images of each other

Diastereomers (): pairs ofstereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other

  • DL

  • RS

  • 4

  • RrightSleft


Conformation: the spatial arrangement of substituent groups that, without breaking any bonds, are free to assume different positions in space because of the freedom of rotation about single bonds

  • Electrostatic interaction ()

  • Hydrogen bond ()

  • van der Waals force ()

  • Hydrophobic interaction ()



Water forms hydrogen bonds with polar solutes

  • hydrophilic)

  • hydrophobic)

Hydrophobic interaction:

The forces that hold the nonpolar regions of the molecules together

  • amphipathic

Molecular Weight, Molecular Mass, and Their Correct Units

Mr: molecular weight (relative molecular mass)

is defined as the ratio of the mass of a molecule of that substance to one-twelfth the mass of carbon-12 (12C)


Molecular mass (m):mass of one molecule, or the mo-

lar mass divided by Avogadros number


1 d= 12C1/12 1.6602x10-27kg



Chemical Evolution of Biomolecules

  • 20

  • 5

  • 2

  • 1

  • 1

  • 1

Wish we all have a good journey in Biochemistry

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