16. Phospholipids, triacylglycerols and complex lipids

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16. Phospholipids, triacylglycerols and complex lipids

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1. 16. Phospholipids, triacylglycerols and complex lipids

2. Membranes contain a variety of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids

3. Lipids in rat hepatocyte (liver cell) membranes

4. The fluidity of a phospholipid bilayer increases at a characteristic temperature (Tm), where the side chains become more disordered

5. Unsaturated fatty acids and short-chain fatty acids make natural fats more fluid

6. Cells adjust their phospholipid composition so that Tm typically is slightly below the growth temperature

7. Animals snthesize oleic acid (C18:1) from stearoylCoA by an enzyme system that uses molecular O2 as an oxidant Blocking expression of the gene for stearoylCoA desaturase was found to prevent diet-induced obesity in mice. Zhang, B. B. (2005) J. Clin. Invest.Blocking expression of the gene for stearoylCoA desaturase was found to prevent diet-induced obesity in mice. Zhang, B. B. (2005) J. Clin. Invest.

8. Animals can’t synthesize unsaturated fatty acids with two or three double bonds

9. Triacylglycerols are synthesized from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl CoA thioesters

10. Adipose tissue can generate glycerol-3-phosphate from glucose or by glyceroneogenesis

11. Glyceroneogenesis and gluconeogenesis are regulated reciprocally by changes in the amounts of PEPcarboxykinase in liver and adipose tissue

12. Mammals synthesize phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from cytidine nucleotide derivatives of the bases

13. Phosphatidylinositol and some other glycerophospholipids are formed from CDP-diacylglycerol

14. Phosphatidylinositol participates in intracellular signaling

15. Eicosanoids are 20-carbon lipids that act locally to stimulate a variety of processes

16. Mammalian cells synthesize eicosanoids from arachidonic acid

17. Phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase operate on substrates in the plasma membrane

18. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 have homologous structures

19. Non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used widely to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

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