Unit 1 cross cultural communication
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Unit 1 Cross-Cultural Communication. Objectives. Students will be able to Know different dimensions of cross-cultural communication Understand the different barriers to cross-cultural communication. Four cultural dimensions. Power distance Individualism and collectivism

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Unit 1 Cross-Cultural Communication

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Unit 1 Cross-Cultural Communication

Apexa Dharankar


Students will be able to

  • Know different dimensions of cross-cultural communication

  • Understand the different barriers to cross-cultural communication

Apexa Dharankar

Four cultural dimensions

  • Power distance

  • Individualism and collectivism

  • Uncertainty avoidance and risk-taking behavior

  • Masculinity

  • Dimensional relationships and externalities

Apexa Dharankar

Power distance

  • Denotes the relationship between superior and subordinates

  • People in ‘high power distance societies prefer little consultation between superior and subordinates

  • People in ‘low power distance’ societies prefer participative and democratic style of leadership

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Individualism and collectivism

  • This affects the formation of group

  • Culture in Western countries is individualistic

  • It is collective in Eastern countries

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Uncertainty avoidance and risk-taking behaviour

  • People who do not like uncertainty prefer system based on methodological work- system based on rules that are not to be deviated

  • People/ employees that score low on uncertainty avoidance prefer flexible organizations and work

  • Countries also differ in future orientation that decides this dimension

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  • The degree to which the dominant values of a society are success, money and material things is masculinity

  • Example: Japan, Mexico, UK, USA, Germany etc

  • Feminity is the degree to which the dominant values of society are caring for others and quality of life.

  • Example: Sweden, Netherlands, Denmark, Thailand etc

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Dimensional relationships and externalities

  • The amalgamation of all the above mentioned dimensions decides the behavior of people amongst themselves and with other countries

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  • Individual

  • Social

  • Linguistic

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  • Values and beliefs

  • Attitudes

  • cognitive- opinion or belief

  • Affective- emotion or feeling

  • Behavioral- related to response and general way of conduct

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  • Religion

  • The idea of its wide-spread, majority, minority, etc

  • Barriers : riots, terrorism, conservatism, restrictions in society etc

  • Family system

  • Role of genders in economy

  • Influence of males/females

  • Nuclear and joint family

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  • Social etiquettes/manners

  • Rules of gifting, hospitality, politeness and manners

  • Example

  • Idea of eye contact in Japan and America

  • Indian as well as Indonesian punctuality

  • Food

  • Affected by demography and geography

  • Food habits

  • Food eating habits

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  • Non-verbal behavior

  • The way people sit, stand, walk, different gestures and postures

  • Use of space

  • Space between people

  • Dressing

  • Expression of emotions

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  • Time consciousness

  • Example

  • Asians do not need an appointment to meet some one and vice-versa but Americans, Europeans and Africans do

  • Friday in the Middle-East is like Sunday in the West

  • Time is money for Americans

  • Time takes a more ‘leisurely walk’ and there is no urgent work in most of the non-Western societies

  • The concept of ‘auspicious time’ in India

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Linguistics Barriers

  • Accents and pronunciations

  • Different types of English

  • Different languages in the same country

  • Different dialects of same language

  • Slang

  • Slang refers to informal words, phrases or statements which are developed over a period in that particular culture

  • Example: totaled, boo-boo, cop, pop etc

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Linguistics Barriers

  • Words with different meanings

  • Example: finger lickin’ good which came out in Chinese as ‘eat your fingers off’

  • Traficante-an Italian mineral water came out as ‘drug dealer’ in Spanish

  • Fadak in Hindi and Marathi

  • Words Equivalents

  • There are many words who do not have equivalents

  • Example: Namaste, Panipuri, pizza, cake etc

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Ways and Means of effective cross-cultural communication

  • Know more about your culture

  • Be open-minded

  • Willingness to learn

  • Overcoming language barriers

  • Be flexible to suit the needs of others

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  • Dimensions of Culture?

  • Barriers?

  • Ways to overcome barriers?

    Questions or doubts?

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Thank you

Apexa Dharankar

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