Translating corporate webpages a corpus study
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Translating Corporate WebPages: a Corpus Study. Miguel A. Jimenez University of North Carolina at Wilmington University of Granada, Spain. The Localization Process is quite different than other types of translation. It is the fastest growing segment in the market.

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Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Translating Corporate WebPages: a Corpus Study

Miguel A. Jimenez

University of North Carolina at Wilmington

University of Granada, Spain

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • The Localization Process is quite different than other types of translation.

    • It is the fastest growing segment in the market.

  • Localisation Industry Standards Association (LISA)[www.lisa.org]:

    “Localization involves taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale (country/region and language) where it will be used and sold”

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • Research part of a PhD research on the differences and peculiarities of the localization process.

  • What is a text in a WebPage or Software program?

  • Not a sequence (beginning/end). Text is not linear

  • Usually not one translator. Globalization.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • Compilation of a Comparable Corpus (Baker, 1995) of Corporate translated pages and pages originally developed in Spain.

  • Parallel and comparable corpora in a Translation.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


What is a corpus

What is a corpus?

  • Sinclair (1991:171), “ [...] a corpus is a collection of naturally-occurring language text, chosen to characterize a state or variety of a language”

  • Leech (1992: 106) Computerized corpus: “ On the face of it, a computer corpus is an unexciting phenomenon; a helluva lot of text, stored on a computer”…. Google??

  • Ours is a comparable corpusBaker (1995): “ a structured electronic collection of texts originally written in a particular language, alongside texts translated into that same language”.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Many translation scholars have used corpus:

  • Baker (1995, 2001) to study de universals of translations. Sanitation, normalization, simplification, explicitation etc.

  • Studies about the characteristics of translated text in several languages (Toury, 1980; Puurtinen, 1995; Laviosa, 1996, 1997, 1998).

  • Comparable corpus usually show that translated texts have structures and frequencies not typical compared to texts originally produced in the target language. (Gellerstain, 1996; Laviosa-Baithwate, 1996)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Study goals

Study goals

  • Show that translated WebPages show different collocations and frequencies than those originally produced in the target language.

  • Translation is a: “communicative event which is shaped by its own goals, pressures and context of production” (Baker, 1996:175)

  • Why in Localization?

    • Fastest growing translation segment

    • Why corporate webpages?

      • Follow the internationalization development guidelines.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • Only basic navigation menus on web home pages are studied.

  • There are many collocations and fixed terms in English WebPages: Contact us, About us, Term of use, etc

  • “Collocation is the occurrence of two or more words within a short space o each other in a text” (Sinclair, 1991)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Base for compiling and creation of a comparable corpus

Base for Compiling and Creation of a Comparable Corpus

  • Our corpus is a monolingual comparable corpus (Baker, 1995).

  • Corporate WebPages addressed to Spanish customers.

  • Corporations have a clear interest in marketing their products in Spain. They have to speak the “customer” language.

  • The second part of it was compiled and modeled by the first part (Laviosa, 1997:293)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


How big is the corpus

How big is the corpus?

  • Translated WebPages: 71

  • Original Spanish WebPages: 84

  • Very limited corpus. (Sinclair 1991)

  • Some scholars support well designed corpora.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Basic criteria to compile a corpus p rez fern ndez 2001

Basic Criteria to Compile a Corpus (Pérez Fernández, 2001)

  • Representativity

  • Standardization

  • Textual Typology

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • Most Important – Representativity

  • “a corpus is put together in a principled way so as to be representative of a larger textual population, in order to make it possible to generalize findings concerning that population”,

  • To be representative: “the full range of variability in a population” (Biber 1993: 243)

  • Different Economic Areas included: Automotive, Banking, Computing, Food, Information, etc.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • Representativity. What should be included?

    • Who is the page addressed to? – Customers

      2. Linguistic condition of the text.

      • Has to be good. Back button is the most used in web surfing.

        3. Translated by professionals

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translated by professionals

Translated by Professionals

  • Naturally translated - Skopos

  • We have to assume. Highly respected companies.

  • Have an interest in the market.

  • Translation into the translator´s first language (not native language) (Baker, 1992, 1995)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Textual typology

Textual typology

  • Influenced by the communicative and pragmatic function

  • Marketing. Offering products and services intenationally.

    Multinational Company

    CLIENT

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Is the webpage translated should it be included in the corpus

Is the webpage translated?Should it be included in the corpus?

  • Important criteria in order to guarantee that any WebPages is an original and naturally-occurring text in the language

  • Using Google as a Corpus?

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Is the webpage translated should it be included in the corpus1

Is the webpage translated?Should it be included in the corpus?

  • The company headquarters are based in an English-Speaking country. “Lingua franca”

  • The possibility of choosing the webpage language from a pull down menu or a flag menu.

  • A page in English that has a Spanish page with the exact same layout and informational content. English .com, Spanish .es

  • The existence of comments and variables in the source file or scripts.

    cerrado=true;

    function despe(){

    if(cerrado){

    bmen.frenadoTo(null,67,4,5,'cerrado=false');

    }

    else bmen.frenadoTo(null,48,4,5,'cerrado=true;')

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • The existence of English text in the Spanish page in frames or the body of the webpage.

  • Not including Spanish diacritical marks such as: ¡, ¿, ñ.

  • The webpage is addressed to a general public, not a specialized one.

  • Finally, not including any advertising text clearly addressed and prepared for a Spanish audience. Nissan España is a clear example.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Corpus analysis tool

Corpus Analysis Tool

  • WordSmith Tools, developed by Mike Scott (1996)

  • Concordancer

    • (KWIC – Key word in context)

    • Concordances Analyzer.

    • Frequency lists. Statistical information about uses of structures and collocations

    • Possibility of working with HTML texts.

  • One lexical unit per page

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Findings

Findings

  • Different Frequencies and Variability

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Minicorpus traducido

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

Contáctenos

16.9%

Contacto

<29.76%

<25+

Contacto

11.26%

Contacta

4.76%

Contactar

11.26%

Contactar

4.76%

Contacta con nosotros

9.8%

Contáctanos

4.76%

Contáctanos

5.6%

Contáctenos

4.76%

Contactos

ericsson

sun microsistems

lg

4.22%

Contacta con ..Con fenix

3.57%

Contacte

1.4%

'Contacte con Toshiba'

Contacte

1.19%

Contacta

0%

Contactos

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Minicorpus traducido

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus

español

(84 páginas)

Política de privacidad

Política de privacidad

19.71%

5.95%

Politica de privacidad

(2 sin acento)

Privacidad

14.08%

Privacidad

3.57%

Declaración de privacidad

4.2%

Política de confidencialidad

1.19%

Cláusula de privacidad

1.4%

Declaración de privacidad

0%

Compromiso de privacidad

1.4%

Cláusula de privacidad

0%

Política de confidencialidad

0%

Compromiso de privacidad

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Minicorpus traducido

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

¿QUIÉNES SOMOS?

9.8%

Conoce ...

10.71%

Nuestra compañía

Nuestra organización

14.08%

¿QUIÉNES SOMOS?

9.52%

Sobre nosotros

4.2%

Nuestra compañía

Nuestra organización

2.38%

Conoce ...

0%

Conócenos

0%

Sobre nosotros

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Minicorpus traducido

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

Condiciones de uso

8.45%

Condiciones de uso

3.57%

Términos y condiciones

5.6%

Condiciones generales de uso

3.57%

Términos de uso

5.6%

Términos y condiciones

0%

Condiciones de utilización

1.4%

Condiciones de utilización

0%

Condiciones generales de uso

0%

Términos de uso

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Minicorpus traducido

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

Inicio

11.26%

Inicio

26.19%

Home

9.85%

Página de inicio

8.33%

Página principal

5.6%

Página principal

3.57%

Página de inicio

4.2%

Home

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Findings1

Findings

  • Supports the hypothesis that translated text show different frequecies and new structures(Gellerstain, 1996; Laviosa-Baithwate, 1996).

  • Variability in translation when terms are not fixed in the t arget language.

    • Privacy Policy

      • “privacy”, - “confidencialidad”, y “privacidad”.

      • “Policy”- “cláusula”, “compromiso”, “política”, “declaración”

  • More fromal language used in Spanish corporate webpages (“ contacta con nosotros, contáctanos”), (“contacta con Fénix, contacto”).

  • Terms and collocations that only appear in translated webpages. Eg. ¨”Términos de uso”, “declaración de privacidad”, “cláusula de privacidad”

  • This study supports our hypothesis on the impact in the localization process of the reduction and isolation of translation segments 

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Future research

Future Research

  • Increase the size of the corpus.

  • Include Flash text.

  • Extend the study to other areas: institutional WebPages, government WebPages, etc.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

  • Use of a more formal language.

  • The company is not “we”

  • Translating only the “surface” structure?. EU privacy laws are different.

  • Adapt the content if necessary

  • In Web Localization, always find parallel texts originally produced in the target language.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Questions

QUESTIONS???

  • COMMENTS????

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


References

References

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


References and list of webpages 2

Referencesand list of webpages (2)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


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