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Translating Corporate WebPages: a Corpus Study. Miguel A. Jimenez University of North Carolina at Wilmington University of Granada, Spain. The Localization Process is quite different than other types of translation. It is the fastest growing segment in the market.

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Translating corporate webpages a corpus study

Translating Corporate WebPages: a Corpus Study

Miguel A. Jimenez

University of North Carolina at Wilmington

University of Granada, Spain

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • The Localization Process is quite different than other types of translation.

    • It is the fastest growing segment in the market.

  • Localisation Industry Standards Association (LISA)[www.lisa.org]:

    “Localization involves taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale (country/region and language) where it will be used and sold”

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • Compilation of a Comparable Corpus peculiarities of the localization process.(Baker, 1995) of Corporate translated pages and pages originally developed in Spain.

  • Parallel and comparable corpora in a Translation.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


What is a corpus
What is a corpus? peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Sinclair (1991:171), “ [...] a corpus is a collection of naturally-occurring language text, chosen to characterize a state or variety of a language”

  • Leech (1992: 106) Computerized corpus: “ On the face of it, a computer corpus is an unexciting phenomenon; a helluva lot of text, stored on a computer”…. Google??

  • Ours is a comparable corpusBaker (1995): “ a structured electronic collection of texts originally written in a particular language, alongside texts translated into that same language”.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Many translation scholars have used corpus: peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Baker (1995, 2001) to study de universals of translations. Sanitation, normalization, simplification, explicitation etc.

  • Studies about the characteristics of translated text in several languages (Toury, 1980; Puurtinen, 1995; Laviosa, 1996, 1997, 1998).

  • Comparable corpus usually show that translated texts have structures and frequencies not typical compared to texts originally produced in the target language. (Gellerstain, 1996; Laviosa-Baithwate, 1996)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Study goals
Study goals peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Show that translated WebPages show different collocations and frequencies than those originally produced in the target language.

  • Translation is a: “communicative event which is shaped by its own goals, pressures and context of production” (Baker, 1996:175)

  • Why in Localization?

    • Fastest growing translation segment

    • Why corporate webpages?

      • Follow the internationalization development guidelines.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • Only basic navigation menus on web home pages are studied. peculiarities of the localization process.

  • There are many collocations and fixed terms in English WebPages: Contact us, About us, Term of use, etc

  • “Collocation is the occurrence of two or more words within a short space o each other in a text” (Sinclair, 1991)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Base for compiling and creation of a comparable corpus
Base for Compiling and Creation of a Comparable Corpus peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Our corpus is a monolingual comparable corpus (Baker, 1995).

  • Corporate WebPages addressed to Spanish customers.

  • Corporations have a clear interest in marketing their products in Spain. They have to speak the “customer” language.

  • The second part of it was compiled and modeled by the first part (Laviosa, 1997:293)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


How big is the corpus
How big is the corpus? peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Translated WebPages: 71

  • Original Spanish WebPages: 84

  • Very limited corpus. (Sinclair 1991)

  • Some scholars support well designed corpora.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Basic criteria to compile a corpus p rez fern ndez 2001
Basic Criteria to Compile a Corpus peculiarities of the localization process. (Pérez Fernández, 2001)

  • Representativity

  • Standardization

  • Textual Typology

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • Most Important – Representativity peculiarities of the localization process.

  • “a corpus is put together in a principled way so as to be representative of a larger textual population, in order to make it possible to generalize findings concerning that population”,

  • To be representative: “the full range of variability in a population” (Biber 1993: 243)

  • Different Economic Areas included: Automotive, Banking, Computing, Food, Information, etc.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • Representativity. What should be included? peculiarities of the localization process.

    • Who is the page addressed to? – Customers

      2. Linguistic condition of the text.

      • Has to be good. Back button is the most used in web surfing.

        3. Translated by professionals

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Translated by professionals
Translated by Professionals peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Naturally translated - Skopos

  • We have to assume. Highly respected companies.

  • Have an interest in the market.

  • Translation into the translator´s first language (not native language) (Baker, 1992, 1995)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Textual typology
Textual typology peculiarities of the localization process.

  • Influenced by the communicative and pragmatic function

  • Marketing. Offering products and services intenationally.

    Multinational Company

    CLIENT

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Is the webpage translated should it be included in the corpus
Is the webpage translated? peculiarities of the localization process.Should it be included in the corpus?

  • Important criteria in order to guarantee that any WebPages is an original and naturally-occurring text in the language

  • Using Google as a Corpus?

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Is the webpage translated should it be included in the corpus1
Is the webpage translated? peculiarities of the localization process.Should it be included in the corpus?

  • The company headquarters are based in an English-Speaking country. “Lingua franca”

  • The possibility of choosing the webpage language from a pull down menu or a flag menu.

  • A page in English that has a Spanish page with the exact same layout and informational content. English .com, Spanish .es

  • The existence of comments and variables in the source file or scripts.

    cerrado=true;

    function despe(){

    if(cerrado){

    bmen.frenadoTo(null,67,4,5,'cerrado=false');

    }

    else bmen.frenadoTo(null,48,4,5,'cerrado=true;')

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • The existence of English text in the Spanish page in frames or the body of the webpage.

  • Not including Spanish diacritical marks such as: ¡, ¿, ñ.

  • The webpage is addressed to a general public, not a specialized one.

  • Finally, not including any advertising text clearly addressed and prepared for a Spanish audience. Nissan España is a clear example.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain



Corpus analysis tool
Corpus Analysis Tool or the body of the webpage.

  • WordSmith Tools, developed by Mike Scott (1996)

  • Concordancer

    • (KWIC – Key word in context)

    • Concordances Analyzer.

    • Frequency lists. Statistical information about uses of structures and collocations

    • Possibility of working with HTML texts.

  • One lexical unit per page

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain




Findings
Findings or the body of the webpage.

  • Different Frequencies and Variability

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Minicorpus traducido or the body of the webpage.

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

Contáctenos

16.9%

Contacto

<29.76%

<25+

Contacto

11.26%

Contacta

4.76%

Contactar

11.26%

Contactar

4.76%

Contacta con nosotros

9.8%

Contáctanos

4.76%

Contáctanos

5.6%

Contáctenos

4.76%

Contactos

ericsson

sun microsistems

lg

4.22%

Contacta con ..Con fenix

3.57%

Contacte

1.4%

'Contacte con Toshiba'

Contacte

1.19%

Contacta

0%

Contactos

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Minicorpus traducido or the body of the webpage.

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus

español

(84 páginas)

Política de privacidad

Política de privacidad

19.71%

5.95%

Politica de privacidad

(2 sin acento)

Privacidad

14.08%

Privacidad

3.57%

Declaración de privacidad

4.2%

Política de confidencialidad

1.19%

Cláusula de privacidad

1.4%

Declaración de privacidad

0%

Compromiso de privacidad

1.4%

Cláusula de privacidad

0%

Política de confidencialidad

0%

Compromiso de privacidad

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Minicorpus traducido or the body of the webpage.

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

¿QUIÉNES SOMOS?

9.8%

Conoce ...

10.71%

Nuestra compañía

Nuestra organización

14.08%

¿QUIÉNES SOMOS?

9.52%

Sobre nosotros

4.2%

Nuestra compañía

Nuestra organización

2.38%

Conoce ...

0%

Conócenos

0%

Sobre nosotros

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Minicorpus traducido or the body of the webpage.

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

Condiciones de uso

8.45%

Condiciones de uso

3.57%

Términos y condiciones

5.6%

Condiciones generales de uso

3.57%

Términos de uso

5.6%

Términos y condiciones

0%

Condiciones de utilización

1.4%

Condiciones de utilización

0%

Condiciones generales de uso

0%

Términos de uso

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Minicorpus traducido or the body of the webpage.

(71 páginas)

Minicorpus español

(84 páginas)

Inicio

11.26%

Inicio

26.19%

Home

9.85%

Página de inicio

8.33%

Página principal

5.6%

Página principal

3.57%

Página de inicio

4.2%

Home

0%

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Findings1
Findings or the body of the webpage.

  • Supports the hypothesis that translated text show different frequecies and new structures(Gellerstain, 1996; Laviosa-Baithwate, 1996).

  • Variability in translation when terms are not fixed in the t arget language.

    • Privacy Policy

      • “privacy”, - “confidencialidad”, y “privacidad”.

      • “Policy”- “cláusula”, “compromiso”, “política”, “declaración”

  • More fromal language used in Spanish corporate webpages (“ contacta con nosotros, contáctanos”), (“contacta con Fénix, contacto”).

  • Terms and collocations that only appear in translated webpages. Eg. ¨”Términos de uso”, “declaración de privacidad”, “cláusula de privacidad”

  • This study supports our hypothesis on the impact in the localization process of the reduction and isolation of translation segments 

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Future research
Future Research or the body of the webpage.

  • Increase the size of the corpus.

  • Include Flash text.

  • Extend the study to other areas: institutional WebPages, government WebPages, etc.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


  • Use of a more formal language. or the body of the webpage.

  • The company is not “we”

  • Translating only the “surface” structure?. EU privacy laws are different.

  • Adapt the content if necessary

  • In Web Localization, always find parallel texts originally produced in the target language.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


Questions
QUESTIONS??? or the body of the webpage.

  • COMMENTS????

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


References
References or the body of the webpage.

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


References and list of webpages 2
References or the body of the webpage.and list of webpages (2)

Miguel A. Jimenez. UNCW/ University of Granada, Spain


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