Water resource managemtn and landmark legislation the clean water act the water framework directive
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Water Resource managemtn and Landmark Legislation: The Clean Water Act The Water Framework Directive. Aquatic systems. Supply goods and services Long term degradation Multiple pressures and impacts Threaten their stability and quality

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Water resource managemtn and landmark legislation the clean water act the water framework directive

Water Resource managemtn and Landmark Legislation:The Clean Water ActThe Water Framework Directive


Aquatic systems
Aquatic systems

  • Supply goods and services

  • Long term degradation

    • Multiple pressures and impacts

      • Threaten their stability and quality

  • A need to better characterise and protect aquatic habitats

  • Implement effective legislation and management plans

    • Integrated “holistic” management

  • The future

    • Water resources and climate change



Commerce ,Industry, Energy production

Agriculture - irrigation

Spiritual and religious importance

Rio Ganges, Índia

Transport



Ecosystems goods and services
Ecosystems goods and services

Direct Services

supply., transport, recreation, fisheries

Indirect services

Flood prevention, recycling of nutrients, genetic resources, maintenance of wetlands

“Services - Existence”

allow the permanence of habitats, their ecosystems and species


Water is the the most threatened natural resource on the planet

Water is the the most threatened natural resource on the planet

The sustainable integrated management of water will be one of the most important areas of 21st century world politics


Water resource management is extremely complex
Water planetresource management is EXTREMELY complex

  • Multiple uses

  • Multiple demands

  • Multiple conflicts

  • Multiple interests

  • Multiple impacts over multiple spatial scales

  • Costs!


Industrial and domestic discharge planet

Urbanisation

Draining of wetlands

Diffuse pollution, changes in land use, soil loss


  • Changes in land use planet

    • Deforestation

    • Habitat destruction

    • Erosion of sediments

    • Changes in nutrient flux

    • Destruction of riparian habitats

    • Channelisation of streams and rivers


Artificialisation of surface water bodies

Urbanisation planet

Longitudinal, lateral and vertical connectivity

Disturbance of water cycle

Decrease in

biodiversity

Ecosystem quality

Sustainable goods and services

Artificialisation of surface water bodies


There are multiple influences that interact to shape the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems

Analysestend to bemadefromcatchmentleveldownwards


Availability of food structure and function of aquatic ecosystems

Predators

Heredity

Aquatic organism or community

Pressures

organism

Physical condition

or fitness

Competition

Habitat

There are multiple influences that interact to shape the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems and communities



An integrated approach
An integrated approach…. management and planning

Socio-Economics, STAKEHOLDERS, planning and management

Aquatic ecosystems

MAINTAIN ECOSYSTEM GOODS AND SERVICES

Sustainable management and planning

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

Ecosystem function and services, habitats, chemical & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


The clean water act cwa usa
The Clean Water Act (CWA - USA) management and planning

  • 1948 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  • 1972 – reorganized and expanded in 1972 - CWA.

    • Subsequent amendments

      • 245 pages!!!

  • Basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the US waters and regulating quality standards for surface waters

    • rivers, lakes, wetlands, and coastal waters.

  • “The objective…………to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters.”


Policy of the cwa
Policy of the CWA management and planning

  • Discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated by 1985;

  • Wherever attainable, an interim goal of water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water be achieved by July 1, 1983;

  • Discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts be prohibited;

  • Federal financial assistance be provided to construct publicly owned waste treatment works;

  • Area wide treatment management planning processes be developed and implemented to assure adequate control of sources of pollutants in each State;

  • A major research and demonstration effort be made to develop technology necessary to eliminate the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters, waters of the contiguous zone and the oceans; and

  • Programs for the control of nonpoint sources of pollution be developed and implemented in an expeditious manner so as to enable the goals of this Act to be met through the control of both point and nonpoint sources of pollution.


The water framework directive wfd

What it’s all about……………. briefly management and planning

The Water Framework Directive (WFD)


Why is the wfd so important
Why is the WFD so important? management and planning

  • Legislates to

    • Promote sustainable water consumption.

    • Obligate public involvement in the elaboration of River Basin Management Plans

    • Protect the aquatic environment and associated wetlands:

      • Establish monitoring programmes

        • Ecological monitoring

      • Prevent further deterioration

      • Protect and enhance status

      • Maintain “good” ecological status

    • mitigate the effects of floods and drought.

Anexcellentframework for developing biomonitoring programmes

(butthe WFD isnotperfect)


“The WFD is intended to cover all water bodies in Europe, and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

It is therefore appropriate that, in contrast to the Habitats Directive, the needs of people and wildlife are balanced.

…TheEuropean Environment Agency (2006) encourages the view that economic development and wildlife conservation are compatible. Moreover, wise use of aquatic resources must recognize the important ecosystem goods and services they provide.”

HATTON-ELLIS (2008). The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Water Framework Directive. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 18: 111–116


Wfd primary objective
WFD – primary objective and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

  • An environmental approach

    • Basin level management of aquatic resources

    • River Basin Management Plans

      • record the current status of water bodies within the river basin district;

      • Programmes of measures to meet the objectives;

      • Reporting mechanism to the Commission and the public

    • Environmental objectives

      • Achieve "good status" for all waters by 2015

    • Ecological monitoring, evaluation and classification of surface water bodies

  • Public participation

  • An economic perspective

    • The gradual payment of the real cost of services provided by water

    • Implement the “Polluter pays” principal


  • WFD and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    • Protect and enhance the quality of

      • surface freshwater

        • lakes, streams, rivers, highly modified or artificial water bodies

          • Ecological status/potential

        • Chemical status

      • Groundwaters

        • Chemical status

      • Groundwater dependant ecosystems

      • Estuaries

      • Coastal waters

        • one mile from low-water


    The water framework directive
    The Water Framework Directive and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    • Sustainable management of aquatic resources

      • A “holistic” approach

      • A spatial framework instead of an administrative framework.

        • River Basin District

          • natural geographical and hydrological unit

            • an analysis of its characteristics,

            • a review of the impact of human activity on the status of surface waters and on groundwater

            • an economic analysis of water use

        • biological elements & support elements

          • Assess ecosystem status of surface water bodies

          • programme of measures


    The water framework directive wfd1
    The Water Framework Directive - WFD and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy 23 October 2000

    “Water is not a commercial product like any other but, rather, a heritage which must be protected, defended and treated as such.”

    “Waters in the Community are under increasing pressure from the continuous growth in demand for sufficient quantities of good quality water for all purposes.

    On 10 November 1995, the European Environment Agency in its report “Environment in the European Union – 1995” presented an updated state of the environment report, confirming the need for action to protect Community waters in qualitative as well as in quantitative terms.”


    • Transposed into national law (Portugal) and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

      • Lei n.º 58/2005, de 29 de Dezembro

        • “A lei de água”


    River basin management planning process
    River Basin Management Planning Process and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.


    “in preparing its and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.policy on the environment, the Community is to take account of available scientific and technical data, environmental conditions in the various regions of the Community, and the economic and social development of the Community as a whole and the balanced development of its regions as well as the potential benefits and costs of action or lack of action.”

    “WFD reflects strongly the history behind current European freshwater ecological monitoring methods. Dating back to the late nineteenth century, major European countries such as Germany, France, Belgium and Great Britain underwent considerable periods of industrialisation and development, concomitant with substantial environmental degradation, ….

    Further, major trans-national European rivers such as the Rhine carry wastes of these activities across political boundaries, forcing neighbouring countries to collaborate or at least work in parallel in implementing monitoring programmes and remedial measures..”

    Hughes SJ and Malmqvist B. (2005) Atlantic Island freshwater ecosystems: challenges and considerations following the EU Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia544: 289-297. DOI 10.1007/s10750-005-1695-y


    Article 1
    Article 1 and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    Establish a framework for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater which:

    • prevents further deterioration and protects and enhances the status of aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands directly depending on the aquatic ecosystems;

    • promotes sustainable water use based on a long-term protection of available water resources;

    • aims at enhanced protection and improvement of the aquatic environment, inter alia, through specific measures for the progressive reduction of discharges, emissions and losses of priority substances and the cessation or phasing-out of discharges, emissions and losses of the priority hazardous substances;

    • ensures the progressive reduction of pollution of groundwater and prevents its further pollution, and 

    • contributes to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.


    Annex ii characterisation

    WFD Ecoregions for rivers and lakes and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    Annex II Characterisation


    Annex ii characterisation1
    Annex II Characterisation and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.


    Annex ii characterisation2
    Annex II Characterisation and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.


    Defining typology for portugal
    Defining typology for Portugal and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    N

    S

    Temperature

    Precipitation

    Flow

    Altitude

    Morphocliamtic regions

    Geology – mineralizationclasses

    • System B (WFD, Annex II),

    • morphoclimatic regions* and mineralization classes

    • Combination of obligatory and optional factors

    • http://dqa.inag.pt/dqa2002/port/docs_apoio/doc_nac/Manuais/Caracterizacao_rios.pdf


    Portugal continental 12 tipologias
    Portugal continental - 12 tipologias and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.


    River basin districts
    River Basin Districts and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.


    Wfd typologies
    WFD - typologies and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.


    Wfd determining surface water status
    WFD – determining surface water status and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    • Chemical status

      • determined by detecting concentrations of a range of pollutants identified as impacting the whole of Europe.

      • If levels of these pollutants are below the threshold values set, a “good chemical status” has been achieved.

      • Groundwater is subject to the additional criteria that its conductivity is not impeded, that it is not causing a deterioration of the ecological and chemical quality of surface waters, and that terrestrial ecosystems relying on groundwater are not impaired.

    • Ecological status

    • determined by identifying the types of fauna and flora that act as biological quality elements.

      • Support elements

      • “good ecological status" - composition of the four quality components of fish, invertebrates, plankton and aquatic plants is only slightly different from reference conditions.

    • Ecological potential

      • Artificial or significantly modified bodies of water,

      • quality goal is “good ecological potential“.

        • determined by identifying all human influences that could be removed without a significantly negative restriction on the body of water’s usage.


    Characterising and classifying surface water status
    Characterising and classifying surface water status and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    • Determine typology

      • Rivers

      • Lakes

      • Transitionalwaters

      • Coastalwaters

      • Artificial & heavilymodifiedsurfacewaterbodies

    • Qualityelements for determiningEcological Status orEcologicalPotential

      • BiologicalQualityElements (BQE)

      • Hydromorphological supportelements

      • Physicochemicalsupportelements

    • 5 quality classes

      • Ecological status

        • High, Good, Moderate, Poor & Bad

      • Ecologicalpotential

        • Maximum, Good, Moderate, Poor & Bad

    • Chemical status

      • 2 quality classes

        • GoodorFailing to achieveGood


    Determining ecological status potential

    Macrophytes and Phytobenthos and is therefore a very wide-ranging legislative tool. Although it will contribute to freshwater conservation, it is intended primarily for the management of the water environment.

    Phytoplankton

    Macroinvertebrates

    Fish

    Determining Ecological Status/Potential

    • Sampling Biological Elements

      • Protocols for collecting

      • Determine metrics based on measures or

        • Composition

        • Abundance

        • Diversity

    • Measure or assess support elements

      • Hidromorphological

      • Physicochemical


    Quality elements to be used for the assessment of ecological status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD


    Metrics used in portugal rivers
    Metrics used in Portugal - rivers status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    Large Rivers?

    Metrics for macrophytes and fish under development


    Hydromorphological support elements rivers
    Hydromorphological support elements - rivers status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD


    Metrics used in portugal reservoirs
    Metrics used in Portugal - reservoirs status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    “Zooplankton is crucial! Its omission in WFD lake monitoring is unwise”

    “As a matter of surprise to lake ecologists all over Europe, zooplankton is not considered a biological quality element in the European Water Framework Directive.”

    “Combined approaches to set reference conditions are more useful than single ones”

    “This also imposes unprecedented implications on the continuity of long-term monitoring subject, for instance, to climate change research.”

    Adapted from

    Zooplankton as indicators in lakes: a scientific-based plea for including zooplankton in the ecological quality assessment of lakes according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD); by Erik Jeppesen et al. 2011, Hydrobiologia, DOI 10.1007/s10750-011-0831-0)


    Quality elements and parameters
    Quality elements and parameters status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD


    Determining ecological status
    Determining ecological status status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    • Compare results of metrics with Reference Conditions (RC)

    • Determine the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR)

      • EQRs have typically been derived from detailed statistical analysis of large ecological datasets.

      • Used to set Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) that establish class boundaries


    The importance of reference conditions
    The importance of Reference Conditions status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD


    Determining ecological status1
    Determining ecological status status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    • Compare results of metrics with Reference Conditions (RC)

    • Determine the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR)

      • Classify – Ecological Status

        • High, Good, Moderate, Poor & Bad


    Classification of surface water status
    Classification of Surface Water Status status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    One out all out


    Classification of status using biological elements
    Classification of status using biological elements status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD


    One status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD out all out


    Intercalibration
    Intercalibration status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD


    Classification of surface water status1
    Classification status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFDofsurfacewater status

    • Primary constraints

      • interactions among management objectives,

      • time lines,

      • funding,

      • institutional constraints of participants.

    • Secondary constraints

      • survey design (geographic extent, sample size, use of existing data)

      • logistics (sampling period, sample shipping, information management, crew expertise, field training),

      • suite of ecological indicators selected (site-scale sampling design, field and laboratory protocols).

    Hughes RM & DV Peck (2008) Acquiring data for large aquatic resource surveys: the art of compromise among science, logistics and reality. J.N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 27(4): 837-859.


    Classification of surface water status2
    Classification status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFDofsurfacewater status

    • What about the gaps?

      • Spatially explicit Modelling methodology

      • Stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM)


    Ecological potential
    Ecological Potential status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    • Ecological status – natural water bodies

    • Ecological potential – heavily modified or artificial water bodies

    • ‘Artificial water bodies’

      • created by human activity

        • a reservoir

      • ‘Heavily modified water bodies’ (HMWB)

        • a water body resulting from physical alterations by human activity, which substantially changes its hydrogeomorphological character, e.g. a harbour.

      • Maximum “ecological potential”

      • No reference conditions


    Classifiaction of ecological potential
    Classifiaction of Ecological Potential status/potential based on the list in Annex V, 1.1, of the WFD

    • EU Member States

      • Phytoplankton – classification of lakes & reservoirs

        • Is it wise to monitor ecological quality using a single Biological Quality Element?

    Table





    River basin managment plans rbmp
    River Basin Managment Plans (RBMP) 2015

    • River Basin District

      • Geographically - not politically defined management unit

    • Planning and management instrument

      • Basis for management support

      • Programme of measures

        • meet WFD environmental objectives

      • Protection & enhancement of environmental, social and economic factors

      • 6 yearly cycle

      • Public Participation

    ORDENAMENTO


    Monitoriza o das guas interiores do norte de portugal
    Monitorização das Águas Interiores do Norte de Portugal 2015

    • DQA

      • Planos de Gestão das Regiões Hidrográficas (PGRH)

    • Rios

      • 171 locais de amostragem

      • 6 tipologias

    • Albufeiras

      • 15 locais de amostragem

      • 2 tipologias




    Excerpts from the wfd
    Excerpts from the WFD 2015

    “It is necessary to develop an integrated Community policy on water.”

    “On 29 May 1995 the Commission adopted a communication to the European Parliament and the Council on the wise use and conservation of wetlands, which recognised the important functions they perform for the protection of water resources.”

    “Community policy on the environment is to contribute to pursuit of the objectives of preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment, in prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources, ……..preventive action should be taken, environmental damage should, as a priority, be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay”


    “close cooperation 2015and coherent action at Community, Member State and local level as well as on information, consultation and involvement of the public, including users.”

    “Further integration of protection and sustainable management of water into other Community policy areas such as energy, transport, agriculture, fisheries, regional policy and tourism is necessary.”

    “An effective and coherent water policy must take account of the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems located near the coast and estuaries or in gulfs or relatively closed seas, as their equilibrium is strongly influenced by the quality of inland waters flowing into them.”


    “This Directive aims 2015at maintaining and improving the aquatic environment in the Community. This purpose is primarily concerned with the quality of the waters concerned. Control of quantity is an ancillary element in securing good water quality and therefore measures on quantity…”

    “…quantitative status of a body of groundwater may have an impact on the ecological quality of surface waters and terrestrial ecosystems associated with that groundwater body.”


    “….Directive is to contribute to the progressive reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to water…”

    “Common principles are needed in order to coordinate Member States' efforts to improve the protection of Community waters …… to promote sustainable water use, to contribute to the control of transboundary water problems…..to protect aquatic ecosystems, and terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands directly depending on them, ……………to safeguard and develop the potential uses of Community waters.”

    “Environmental objectives ……………..to ensure that good status of surface water and groundwater is achieved throughout the Community and that deterioration in the status of waters is prevented at Community level.”


    Member States reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to should aim to achieve the objective of at least good water status by defining and implementing the necessary measures within integrated programmes of measures, taking into account existing Community requirements.

    In aiming to achieve the objectives set out in this Directive, and in establishing a programme of measures to that end, Member States may phase implementation of the programme of measures in order to spread the costs of implementation


    “analyses of the reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to characteristics of a river basin and the impacts of human activity as well as an economic analysis of water use. The development in water status should be monitored by Member States on a systematic and comparable basis …”


    “Undertake analyses of the reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to characteristics of a river basin and the impacts of human activity as well as an economic analysis of water use. The development in water status should be monitored by Member States on a systematic and comparable basis throughout the Community.”


    Setting up a monitoring programme

    Setting up a Monitoring Programme reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to

    Using the WFD as a guideline to developing biomonitoring programmes


    Why do we need biomonitoring
    Why reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to do weneed biomonitoring?


    Reasons for monitoring surface waters
    Reasons for Monitoring Surface Waters reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to

    • Monitoring information is needed for:

      • Classification of status of all water bodies or groups of water bodies.

      • To support risk assessment procedures.

      • Design of future monitoring programmes.

      • Assessment of long-term changes whose causes are both natural and anthropogenic.

      • Assessment of compliance with standards and objectives.

      • Estimation of pollution load transfers across international boundaries or into seas.

      • Assessing the efficacy of measures applied to water bodies designated as at risk.

      • Ascertaining formerly unidentified reasons for failure to achieve environmental objectives.

      • Assessing the impact of accidental pollution.

      • Use in inter-calibration exercises


    The wfd provides an excellent framework
    The WFD – reduction of emissions of hazardous substances to provides an excellent framework

    • Which biological, physical and chemical parameters should be measured

    • How deviations from reference condition should be defined and enumerated

    • design of monitoring programmes

    • presentation of results

    • timetables for completion of different tasks

    • Recognises the importance of

      • Ecological factors

      • Hydrology

      • River continuity

      • Morphological conditions


    The WFD - an excellent general framework for Ecological Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    • Development of typologically appropriate monitoring and assessment methods.

    • Ecological Status classification

      • Integration of different types of information on water bodies

        • Biological Quality Elements

        • Chemical

        • Physicochemical Quality Elements

        • Hydromorphological Quality Elements.


    The seven habits of highly effective monitoring programmes
    The seven habits of highly effective monitoring programmes Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    Lovett et al: Who needs environmental monitoring? Front Ecol Environ 2007; 5(5): 253–260

    • Design the program around clear and compelling scientific questions.

      • Questions are crucial because they determine the variables measured, spatial extent of sampling, intensity and duration of the measurements, and, ultimately, the usefulness of the data.

    • Include review, feedback, and adaptation in the design.

      • The guiding questions may change over time, and the measurements should be designed to accommodate such changes.

      • “Are our questions still relevant and are the data still providing an answer?”

        • Capacity to adapt to changing questions and incorporate changing technology without losing the continuity of its core measurements.

    • Choose measurements carefully and with the future in mind.

      • Not every variable can be monitored.

      • Selected core measurements should be important as either basic measures of system function, indicators of change, or variables of particular human interest.

      • Monitoring change in a statistical population, measurements should be carefully chosen to provide a statistically representative sample of that population.

      • Measurements should be as inexpensive as possible because the cost of the program may determine its long-term sustainability.


    The seven habits of highly effective monitoring programmes1
    The seven habits of highly effective monitoring programmes Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    • Maintain quality and consistency of the data.

      • The best way to ensure that data will notbe used is to compromise quality or to change measurement methods or collection sites repeatedly.

      • The confidence of future users of the data will depend entirely on the quality assurance program implemented at the outset.

      • Sample collections and measurements should be rigorous, repeatable, well documented, and employ accepted methods.

        • Methods should be changed only with great caution, and any changes should be recorded and accompanied by an extended period in which both the new and the old methods are used in parallel, to establish comparability.

    • Plan for long-term data accessibility and sample archiving.

      • Metadata should provide all the relevant details of collection, analysis, and data reduction. Raw data should be stored in an accessible form to allow new summaries or analyses if necessary. Raw data, metadata, and descriptions of procedures should be stored in multiple locations.

      • Data collected with public funding should be made available promptly to the public.

      • Policies of confidentiality, data ownership, and data hold-back times should be established at the outset. Archiving of soils, sediments, plant and animal material, and water and air samples provides an invaluable opportunity for re-analysis of these samples in the future.

    Lovett et al: Who needs environmental monitoring? Front Ecol Environ 2007; 5(5): 253–260


    The seven habits of highly effective monitoring programmes2
    The seven habits of highly effective monitoring programmes Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    • Continually examine, interpret, and present the monitoring data.

      • The best way to catch errors or notice trends is for scientists and other concerned individuals to use the data rigorously and often.

      • Commit resources to managing data and evaluating, interpreting, and publishing results. These are crucial components of successful monitoring programs, but planning for them often receives low priority compared to actual data collection.

    • Include monitoring within an integrated research program.

      • An integrated program may include modeling, experimentation, and cross-site comparisons. This multi-faceted approach is the best way to ensure that the data are useful and, indeed, are used.

    Lovett et al: Who needs environmental monitoring? Front Ecol Environ 2007; 5(5): 253–260


    Annex ii characterisation of surface water body types
    Annex II - Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme developmentCharacterisation of surface water body types

    • SURFACE WATERS

      • Typology

        • Ecoregion

        • Fixed or alternative characterisation of surface water bodies

          • Rivers

          • Lakes

          • Transitional

          • Coastal

          • Artificial or highly modified

        • Reference Conditions

        • Pressures and Impacts


    Establishing typology annex ii
    Establishing Typology - Annex II Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    • Ecoregion

    • Fixed or alternative characterisation of surface water bodies


    Rivers
    Rivers Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    ?


    Rivers1
    Rivers Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development


    Lakes
    Lakes Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    ?


    Lakes1
    Lakes Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development


    Defining reference conditions annex ii
    Defining Reference conditions - Annex II Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    • Defining Reference conditions

    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


    Annex ii identifying pressures and assessment of impact
    Annex II - Identifying pressures and assessment of impact Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development


    Annex v
    Annex V Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development

    • Quality elements for the classification of ecological status

    • Normative definitions of ecological status classifications

    • Monitoring of ecological status and chemical status for surface waters

    • Classification and presentation of ecological status


    Bqe types of metrics that can be used
    BQE – types of metrics that can be used. Status classification and biomonitoring criteria and programme development




    Defining typology
    DEFINING TYPOLOGY…. pupal exuviae


    Outdated ecoregions

    WFD Ecoregions for rivers and lakes pupal exuviae

    Outdated Ecoregions

    The outline made by J. Illies (1978) in Limnofauna Europaea (G. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart) has been used as a basis for the WFD Ecoregions.


    Limited use of biological quality elements for lentic surface water bodies
    Limited pupal exuviae use ofBiologicalqualityelements for lenticsurfacewater bodies


    Metrics used in portugal reservoirs1
    Metrics used in Portugal - reservoirs pupal exuviae

    “Zooplankton is crucial! Its omission in WFD lake monitoring is unwise”

    “As a matter of surprise to lake ecologists all over Europe, zooplankton is not considered a biological quality element in the European Water Framework Directive.”

    “Combined approaches to set reference conditions are more useful than single ones”

    “This also imposes unprecedented implications on the continuity of long-term monitoring subject, for instance, to climate change research.”

    Adapted from

    Zooplankton as indicators in lakes: a scientific-based plea for including zooplankton in the ecological quality assessment of lakes according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD); by Erik Jeppesen et al. 2011, Hydrobiologia, DOI 10.1007/s10750-011-0831-0)



    What are the eqr s really measuring
    What are the EQR’s really measuring? pupal exuviae

    • EQRs have typically been derived from detailed statistical analysis of large ecological datasets,

      • used to set Environmental Quality Standards that establish class boundaries.

    • Are European environmental standards being erected on the basis of statistical distributions or ecological impacts?

      • Are the patterns real?

    HATTON-ELLIS (2008). The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Water Framework Directive. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 18: 111–116


    Climate change
    Climate pupal exuviaechange…..


    Simulations based on a doubling in atmospheric CO pupal exuviae2 predict a 1.7– 7 ºC increase in air temperature by 2100 (IPCC, 2007).

    MEDITERRANEAN REGION: Reduced water availability, increased drought, severe biodiversity loss, increase in forest fires, reduced suitable cropping areas, increased summer energy demand, reduced hydropower

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch12s12-4.html


    Future climate in portugal
    Future climate in Portugal pupal exuviae

    • Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations

    • Clear upward trend

    • Significant warming in 21st century

      • Temperature increase of 4-7ºC by 2100

      • Tipping point – 2200?


    Widely accepted climate change scenarios europe
    Widely accepted climate change scenarios (Europe) pupal exuviae

    • More frequent droughts in summer, as well as flash-flooding,

      • uncontrolled discharges from urban areas to receiving water courses and estuaries.

    • Invasion by alien species

      • migration of species within the UK adapting to changing temperatures and flow regimes.

    • Lower flows, reduced velocities

      • higher water residence times in rivers and lakes

      • Enhance potential for toxic algal blooms and reduce dissolved oxygen levels.

    • Upland streams

      • increased dissolved organic carbon and colour levels, requiring action at water treatment plants to prevent toxic by-products entering public water supplies.

    • Storms that terminate drought periods will flush nutrients from urban and rural areas or generate acid pulses in acidified upland catchments.

    • Policy responses to climate change, such as the growth of bio-fuels or emission controls, will further impact freshwater quality.

    Whitehead et al (2009). A review of the potential impacts of climate change on surface water quality. Hydrological Sciences–Journal–des Sciences Hydrologiques, 54(1)


    Function pupal exuviae

    Decomposition, photosynthesis

    autochthonous & allochthonous input

    Changes in vegetation

    Ripariangallerystructureandcomplexity

    Presence/expansionofexotics &

    Invasivespecies

    Reduced ecosystem services

    Shifts in biodiversity and ecosystem resilience

    Rivers & streams

    Physicochemical alterations

    Temperature

    DO

    Dilution of pollutants

    Flow

    Connectivity

    Recruitment

    Habitat heterogeneity

    Hydromorphology

    Sediment transport

    Biological elements

    Taxonomic and trait shifts

    Growth rates/metabolism

    Survival/ Extinction

    Microbial activity



    Guidance document no 24 river basin management in a changing climate
    Guidance document No. 24 pupal exuviae“RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT IN A CHANGING CLIMATE”

    “Apart from exceptional circumstances, it is not expected that, within the timeframe of WFD implementation (i.e. up to 2027) and within the metrics used for status assessment, a climate change signal will be statistically distinguishable from the effects of other human pressures at a level requiring reclassification of sites.”

    Modelling…………….


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