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Agenda Tuesday, July 19. Cash-crops role play exercise Isaacman and Searing. Lecture: The colonial apex. Background: Eastern Nigeria and the Aba Women’s War. . Cash crops role-play exercise. Mozambique

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agenda tuesday july 19
AgendaTuesday, July 19
  • Cash-crops role play exercise
    • Isaacman and Searing.
  • Lecture: The colonial apex.
    • Background: Eastern Nigeria and the Aba Women’s War.
cash crops role play exercise
Cash crops role-play exercise
  • Mozambique
    • Goal: create an ideal economic cash crop policy, within the context identified by Isaacman.
      • Secondary goal: examine and explain the rationalizations for Portuguese policies of forced labour, and understand the range of responses open to peasants.
  • Group 1: Portuguese colonialists
  • Group 2: Mozambican peasants
  • Senegal
    • Goal: to understand what motivated and shaped the development of the peanut economy.
      • Secondary goal: examine and account for the role of the colonial state in developing the peanut economy.
  • Group 3: Senegalese household head
  • Group 4: Administration and trading groups/classes
the colonial apex
The colonial apex
  • Tremendous social growth and change, 1920s and 1930s
  • Stability and peace
  • New social and economic opportunities
  • Population boom
  • Greater access to education
colonial challenges
…colonial challenges
  • New elites vs. entrenched hierarchies.
  • Workers; wealth, identity, networks, control.
  • Peasants; new social standing.
  • Development of new identities.
  • Challenges to traditional rulers.
colonial attempts at containment 1920s 1939
Colonial attempts at containment: 1920s-1939
  • Critiques from within the colonial bureaucracy.
  • Response; greater intervention, enlargement of state.
  • ‘Retribalization’; shore up support for traditional rulers and indirect rule.
    • Problems with colonial notion of ‘tribe’
second wave of colonialism 1939 1950s
Second wave of colonialism, 1939-1950s
  • Turn away from indirect rule, greater colonial influence.
  • Colonial Welfare and Development Acts, 1940 and 1945.
  • New emphases on political and economic development.
    • Mechanization of agriculture
    • Promotion of industry
    • Environmental degradation
tanganyika groundnut scheme
Tanganyika groundnut scheme
  • Embodiment of second-wave colonialism.
  • Mechanized peanut cultivation, akin to Canadian prairies.
  • Failure of equipment.
  • Poor choice of land.
  • Net loss: £49 million.
background to the aba women s war
Background to the Aba ‘Women’s war’
  • Interpretations have attributed the conflict to;
    • Taxation
    • Gender conflict
    • Secondary resistance
    • Anti-colonial nationalism
    • Class conflict
    • Agitation against chiefs/indirect rule
pre colonial igbo
Pre-colonial Igbo
  • Heterarchical societies.
  • Governed by assemblies of common (titled) people.
  • Comparable to republican assemblies, modern democracy.
  • 1901-1914, sporadic disturbance until 1920.
  • Fought on a town-by-town basis.
    • Lack of larger political unity.
  • Drawn-out and violent conflict.
colonial nigeria eastern province
Colonial Nigeria, Eastern Province
  • Creation of ‘warrants’ and ‘warrant chiefs’
  • Spread of Christianity.
  • Imposition of tax.
significant themes
Significant themes
  • Taxation
    • Imposed on men in 1928.
    • In pre-colonial society, women were not taxed on produce, merchandise or possessions.
  • ‘Sitting’
    • Form of protest, rooted in pre-colonial society.
    • Designed to shame, until accused repents and offers restitution.
    • Mainly non-violent, could involve destruction of property.
aba women s war historical commission of inquiry
Aba Women’s War: Historical commission of inquiry
  • Terms of reference:
  • to uncover the individual causes of the ‘women’s war’, and assess their contribution to stimulating the conflict.
  • to identify historical interpretations of the conflict, and assess their arguments and agendas.
  • Group 1: Perham
  • Group 2: Van Allen
  • Group 3: Bastian
  • Group 4: Chuku
  • Each group must be prepared to present the evidence from their article, and provide initial assessment.
    • Each group must ask one question for each of the other articles, highlighting their main themes, ideas, or arguments.