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CP Violation for the Heaven and the Earth. — Sighting the 4th Generation ?. February 6, 2009 , Wine & Cheese Seminar, Fermilab. Can all this be understood from my vantage ?. Outline. I. Intro: the Heavenly Attraction II. D A K p Problem — Z Penguin and t’ Loop

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slide1

CP Violation for the Heaven and the Earth

— Sighting the 4th Generation?

February 6, 2009, Wine & Cheese Seminar, Fermilab

slide3

Outline

I. Intro: the Heavenly Attraction

II. DAKpProblem — Z Penguin and t’ Loop

III. DmBs Measurement ➙ Prediction for sin2FBs

IV. Soaring to theHeavens : Enough CPV for BAU?

V. Direct Sighting @ Tevatron vs LHC

VI. Conclusion: Know in 3-5 Years

b → s // b ↔ s CPV

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu,

PRL’05; PRD’05; PRD’07; PRD’08

Belle, Nature, 452, 20 (2008)

WSH, arXiv:0803.1234 [hep/ph]

slide5

Matter (?)

Matter!

Antimatter: 0%

slide6

(1967)

CPV & BAU (& U): The Sakharov View

  • Baryon Number V iolation
  • CP Violation
  • Deviation from Equilibrium

10-9Matterleft!

13Byr

Bang

Us

Pair

Annihilation

(  Cosmic Microwave

Background )

Equal Matter

-Antimatter

discovery of cp violation

Sakharov Stimulated by ...

Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 138 (1964)

Discovery of CP Violation

1980 Nobel

slide8

s

s′

Purely Real

Rotation

d′

d

qC

Charged Current

c,

u

g

W

Jm

W–

d’

,

Kobayashi-Maskawa Model (1973)

s’

slide9

s

s′

b′

b

d′

d

qC

s′

s

Charged Current

c,

u

t,

qC

d

d′

g

W

Jm

W–

d’

,

,s’

b’

KM Model: 2 x 2➙3 x 3

3x3 Rotation !

PLUS ...

3 “Generations”

slide10

ui

W

Jm

W–

gVij

dj

Complex Dynamics: KM Sector of SM

Wolfenstein parametrization

3x3 “Rotation”

Unitary

Need presence of all 3 generations

to exhibit CPV in Standard Model

slide11

KM CPV Confirmed ~ 2001

the MOMA plot

“Nontrivial”

slide12

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

"for the discovery of the origin of the

broken symmetry which predicts the

existence of at least three families of

quarks in nature"

"for the discovery of

the mechanism of

spontaneous broken

symmetry in

subatomic physics"

CPViolation

in SM

7 October 2008

B Factories

(BaBar & Belle)

slide13

Wolfenstein Parametrization to O(5)

Unique CPV Phase: Common Area of Triangle

N.B. geometric picture

slide14

All like-charge quark pairs nondegenerate,

  • Otherwise  Back to 2-gen. and CPV vanish

Jarlskog Invariant (1985) for CPV

CPVso far only observed in KM ...

  • Nontrivial CPV Phase: A (area)
  • Nontrivial
slide15

b  d transitions consistent with SM

b  s:the Current Frontier

the MOMA plot

“Nontrivial”

slide16

A Real Hint !

, ... or Not !?

slide17

Belle 2008 Nature: Simple Bean Count

DAKp =AK+p0-AK+p-=+0.1640.037 4.4s

+0.070.03vs-0.0940.020

b → s CPV

Difference

Is

Large !

And Established

Belle + BaBar (+ CDF)

slide18

Dispair

Obligé

Unexpected!

slide21

Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV

in SM

is common (unique) area of triangle

The Abyss: CPV in KMand B.A.U.

The Lore

WMAP

Too Small in SM

Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM)

EW Phase Transition Temperature

Masses too Small!

~ v.e.v.

CPV Phase

Small, but not Toosmall

slide22

(u, d,) s, c, b quarks too light

v.e.v.

Why Repeat ? “Flavor Problem”

slide23

C

PEW

Wisdom from Peskin on DAKp

“hadronic”

, SLAC

slide24

M. Peskin (private communication)

“I must say that I am very skeptical that the new Belle result is new

physics -- a larger than expected color suppressed amplitude is an

explanation that is ready at hand. On the other hand, I felt that it was

necessary to push the new physics interpretation when writing for the

Nature audience, people outside of high energy physics, because this

is why the result is potentially newsworthy.”

Ya, ya!

Need 1010anyway !

Me keep crawlin’...

colorsuppressed

slide25

Measured by Belle/BaBar

in Bd J/yKS

  • Recent Hint @ Tevatron
  • Consistent with 4th generation
  • Prediction from DAKp
  • BSM w/o hadronic uncertainty
  • iff true.
  • So what!? The 10-10 Abyss ...

sin2FBs< 0 !! ( ≲ 3s)

Mixing-dep. CPV in Bd and Bs in SM

b → d

b → s

sin2FBs≃– 0.04 in SM3

Measure in Bs J/yf

“possible only at LHCb”

slide26

II. DAKpProblem — Z Penguin and t’ Loop

the Experimentalist

Just when DSfK “disappeared”...

a cp b k p 0

275M BB

New

Saga Towards Belle Nature Paper ...

ACP(B  K+p0 )

Sakai

Kp0 : 728 53

ACP(Kp0) = 0.04  0.05  0.02

hint thatACP(K+p- ) ¹ACP(Kp0 ) ? (2.4s)

[also seen by BaBar]

d

p0

Large EW penguin (Z0) ?

New Physics ?

_

d

B-

b

s

K-

u

u

ICHEP 2004, Beijing

slide28

Belle 2004 PRL: Seed

Y. Chao, P. Chang et al.

by “yours truly”

PEW

Z’

slide29

d

p0

_

d

B-

b

s

K-

u

u

The Crawlin’ of one Ant

Going Up a Hill ...

slide30

My first B paper

WSH, Willey, Soni

dimensions

<

nondecoupling

slide31

Nondecoupling

Decoupling Thm: Heavy Masses are decoupled in QED/QCD

∵Appear in Propagator

Nondecoupling: Yukawa CouplingslQAppear in Numerator

dynamical

Subtlety of Spont. Broken Gauge Theory

slide32

d

p0

_

d

B-

b

s

K-

u

u

The Crawlin’ of one Ant

,t’

Embark

Going Up a Hill ...

slide33

4thgeneration not in such great conflict with EWPrT

  • Kribs, Plehn, Spannowsky, Tait, PRD’07

4th Generation Still?

- Nn counting? 4th “neutral lepton” heavy

Massive neutrinos call for new Physics

- Disfavored by EW Precision (see e.g. J. Erler hep-ph/0604035; PDG06

slide35

d

p0

_

d

B-

b

s

K-

u

u

GIM Respecting

Arhrib and WSH, EPJC’03

t➯t, t’

,t’

Nondecoupling of t’

CPV Phase

,t’

slide36

EWP/Box Sensitivity to 4th Gen.

g, g less sensitive

(No New Operators)

EW penguin

QCD penguin

nondecoupling

slide37

d

p0

_

d

B-

b

s

K-

u

u

,t’

,t’

DA= AK+p0-AK+p- ~ 15% and

LO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05

DA 12% vs 15% (data)

slide39

d

p0

_

d

t, t’

b

s

B-

K-

u

u

NLO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.

Joining C & PEW

DA 15%

DS  -0.11

consistent

with data

SM3 input

DS

DA

Both and in Right Direction !

DA= AK+p0-AK+p- ~ 15% and

LO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05

DA 12% vs 15% (data)

Can Account for Belle/BaBar Direct CPV Difference

WSH, Li, Mishima, Nagashima, PRL’07

slide40

_

Z bb

b  d

x ~ 0.22

4 x 4 Unitarity ➯Z/K Constraints

“Typical” CKM Matrix

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’05

Extract Information from Constraints

s b

d s

Nontrivial

Satisfy b  d: ✓

Cannot tell triangle

from quadrangle

b  s

slide41

b ↔ s CPV

III. DmBs Measurement➙Prediction for sin2FBs

the Experimentalist

slide42

Measured by Belle/BaBar

in Bd J/yKS

Mixing-dep. CPV in Bd and Bs in SM

b → d

b → s

sin2FBs≃– 0.04 in SM3

Measure in Bs J/yf

slide43

Despite DmBs, B(bsll) SM-like

Strength and Size of

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07

Prediction: Large CPV in Bs Mixing

b → d

b → s

t, t ’

t, t ’

sin2FBs ~ -0.5 to -0.7

No Hadronic Uncertainty ...

-0.04 SM

PRL’05

slide44

Bs Mixing vsB  Xsℓ+ℓ-

different nondecoupl. functions

Large CPV in Bs Mixing

slide45

Use nominal mt’ = 300 GeV

Change mt’ , Change parameter range

Effect the Same.

(Similar)

slide46

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, hep-ph/0610385

(PRD’07)

SM

(high)

rsb

  • Fixed rsb➯ Narrow fsb Range
  • destructive with top
  • For rsb ~ 0.02 – 0.03, [Vcb ~ 0.04
  • fsb Range ~ 60°-70°

CDF2srange

FiniteCPV Phase

Consistent w/ B(bsll)

SM-like !

HFAG 1srange

Large CPV Possible !

Despite DmBs, B(bsll) SM-like

slide47

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, hep-ph/0610385

(PRD’07)

SM

(high)

rsb

  • Fixed rsb➯ Narrow fsb Range
  • destructive with top
  • For rsb ~ 0.02 – 0.03, [Vcb ~ 0.04
  • fsb Range ~ 60°-70°

CDF2srange

FiniteCPV Phase

Consistent w/ B(bsll)

SM-like !

HFAG 1srange

Large CPV Possible !

Despite DmBs, B(bsll) SM-like

slide48

Despite DmBs, B(bsll) SM-like

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05

Prediction: Large CPV in Bs Mixing

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07

SM

(high)

rsb

Bs Mixing Measured

@ Tevatron in 4/2006

  • Fixed rsb➯ Narrow fsb Range
  • destructive with top
  • For rsb ~ 0.02 – 0.03, [Vcb ~ 0.04
  • fsb Range ~ 60°-70°

CDF2srange

FiniteCPV Phase

sin2FBs ~ -0.5 - -0.7

?

-0.04 SM

slide49

Prediction: Large CPV in Bs Mixing

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07

SM

(high)

rsb

DAKp, DS

CDF2srange

Can Large CPV in Bs Mixing

Be Measured @ Tevatron ?

Sure thing by

LHCb ca. 2010 (?)

Sign Predicted !

sin2FBs ~ -0.5 - -0.7

?

-0.04 SM

Despite DmBs, B(bsll) SM-like

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05

slide50

sin2FBs~ -0.5 --0.7

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07

arXiv:0712.2397 [hep.ex]

arXiv:0802.2255 [hep.ex]

3.7s

+0.16

-0.14

sin2FBs=-0.64

UTfit

arXiv:0803.0659 [hep.ph]

(already in 05)

PRL’08

PRL’08

Further ICHEP’08 Updates (CDF/DØ/fitters): Strengthen !

~2.8s

± ?

Incredible !!!

conservative outlook

sin2FBs =-sinbs=sinfs

(Conservative) outlook

% of CDF ‘clones’ that would observe a 5σ-effect, as a function of βs

  • Assumptions
  • ΔΓs = 0.1 ps-1
  • Constant data-taking efficiency
  • No analysis improvements.
  • No external constraints (ASL, lifetimes) used.

Observationby 2010 if Central Value Stays !

Probability of 5σ observation

CDF future will probably be better than that.

And DØwill contribute too.

βs

--- 8/fb (~2010)

--- 6/fb (~2009)

D. Tonelli- Fermilab

instead flipped c 7

W.-S. Hou, A. Hovhannisyan, and N. Mahajan, PRD 77, 014016 (2008)

complex wilson coefficients

SM

4th generation (SM4)

2fb-1 MC study of LHCb

(~7000 K*ll events)

(=s/mB2=q2/mB2)

Instead flipped C7 ...

Belle

657M

arXiv:0810.0335

Preliminary

386M

BABAR, arXiv:0804.4412

Deviation from SM3!?

SM4

SM3

slide56

Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV

in SM

is common (unique) area of triangle

CPV Phase

B.A.U. fromCPV in KM?

WMAP

Too Small in SM

Why? Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM)

masses too small!

slide57

in SM

Order 1 ~ 30

CPV Phase

B.A.U. fromCPV in KM?

Enough CPV?

WMAP

Too Small in SM

If shift by One Generation in SM4(need 3 generation in KM)

Providence

WSH, arXiv:0803.1234 [hep/ph]

~ 10+15 Gain

Nature would

likely use this !?

Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings !

slide58

The Abyss between CPV in SM3 vs BAU

bridged in SM4 by Heaviness of t’and b’

Why wasn’t this clearly

pointed out in past 20 years?

slide59

4thgeneration not in such great conflict with EWPrT

  • Kribs, Plehn, Spannowsky, Tait, PRD’07

4th Generation Still?

- Nn counting? 4th “neutrino” heavy

Massive neutrinos call for new Physics

- Disfavored by EW Precision (see e.g. J. Erler hep-ph/0604035; PDG06

(To Me) CPV Source for BAU Overrides These Concerns !

slide60

b → d

b → s

Only fac. 30 in CPV per se

10+15

Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings !

quadrangle from

comprehensive study

WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD05

~ 10+15 Gain

10+13

This part will shrink a bit.

slide61

4 generations: 3 indep. phases

long and short

d-s degenerate

2-3-4 generation only !

Effectively 3 generations

(on v.e.v. scale)

CPV for BAU: 2-3-4 Dominance

Jarlskog’87,n generations

Jarlskog’85, 3 generations

“3 cycles”

also Gronau, Kfir, Loewy ’87

J(1,2,3) very small

suppressed by ms, mc

slide62

1st Order EW Phase Trans. for BAU ?

0803.1234 will appear in Chin. J. Phys.

Ran out of time, and knowledge ...

(perturbative)

PRD’08

  • Fok & Kribs: Not possible in 4th generation
  • Conjecture: Could Strong Yukawa’s do it ?

Beyond Unitarity Limit

Not quite conclusive (?)

slide63

Thoughts on the other 1/2 Nobel Prize

"for the discovery of the origin of the

broken symmetry which predicts the

existence of at least three families of

quarks in nature"

"for the discovery of

the mechanism of

spontaneous broken

symmetry in

subatomic physics"

SSB

Could EWSB be

due to b’ and t’

above unitarity bound ~ 500-600 GeV ?

Bob Holdom: N–J-L

[Bardeen, Hill, Lindner

Gustavo Burdman: “Holographic” 4th gen.

slide65

LHC

  • sin2FBs “Confirmation” — “Easy” for LHCb
  • b’, t’ Discovery —Straightforward/full terrain

Tevatron/LHC Verification

Unequivocal BSM

... if true

Tevatron

  • sin2FBs “Evidence” by 2009 ?
  • “Observe” by 2010 ?
  • t’ Search Ongoing:
  • mt’ > 311 GeV @ 95% CL

But when ?

Glimpse of agenda at CMS

slide66

Sighting

Vision ~ Early ’06

  • 4th generation? — The jury is out …

In era of LHC, can Directly Search for b’, t’

Once and For All !

Find b’, t’, or Rule Out @ LHC

It’s a Duty.

  • Strategy Considerations ( )
  • Well shielded training ground— All Tools
  • ☞ Move on to Greener Pastures ~ in 2 years
  • Publish early — Large Cross Section
  • - If “Limits”, then easy to publish
  • - If “Signal”, Lucked Out!

Well shielded

Publish early

slide67

Initial discovery should consider

b’  cW ~ b’  bZ, bH ~b’  tW*

For mb’ > mt+MW = 255 GeV

b’  tW dominance; FCNC searchable

b’ Signatures

For mb’ < mt+MW = 255 GeV

b’  cW dominance

b’  tW* dominance

for sizable

for suppressed

Kinematic suppressed for mb’≲ 230 GeV

Bonus !!

cc(bar)WW; cWbZ; cWbH;

tc(bar)WW*;

tt(bar)W*W*; tW*bZ; tW*bH;

Rich

Signature

Heavy Q related

To EWSB ?

4 W’s + 2b’s

tt(bar)WW → bb(bar)W+W-W+W-

slide70

Even ifO(1)

10+15

VI. Conclusion: Know in 3-5 Years

~ 10+15 Gain

10+13

Enough CPV

for B.A.U.

sin2FBs

@ Tevatron

by 2010

Maybe there is a 4th Generation !

Will Really Know in ~ 3–5 years !

@ LHC

Heaven on Earth?

slide71

Universe (Genesis)

CPV

BAU

Earth (EW + KM4)

slide73

Matter (and More !!) Universe: No Antimatter

Dark

Energy:

~70%

Dark

Matter:

~25%

Antimatter: 0%

~25% !

~70% !

slide74

Heavenly TH

“Affleck-Dine”, SUSY etc.:

ExtraScalars(strongly) coupled to H0

Leptogenesis:

Heavy Majorana Neutrinos

⊕ LFV/CPV Decay

⊕ B/L Violation (“EW Baryogenesis”)

Scalars

More Scalars!

Let’s first find One Scalar.

Popular! Driving q13 study for neutrinos.

But, “Heavenly”— Could be(come) Metaphysics

slide75

i in Dynamics: Source of CPV

(everyone can feel

ElectroMagnetism:

Charge e is Real.

“We” Understand: Gauge Charge is Real.

Imagine a Complex Coupling :

True, or, Possible, for Yukawa (湯川) Coupling of

quarks/leptons to Higgs boson(s)...

Quantum InterferenceinAmplitudeMore Interesting

How CP Violation Appears

slide76

CP Asymmetry needs both CP Conserv/Violating Phase

CP Violation Primer

AntiParticle Process

Particle Process

idyn

iQM

slide77

+0.0500.025

-0.0970.012

?

A lot of (hadronic) finesse

d

p0

_

d

b

s

B-

K-

u

u

World

= +0.1470.028> 5s

Experiment is Firm

DAKp~ 0 expected

Why aPuzzle ?

Large C ?

Large EWPenguin?

Baek, London, PLB653, 249 (2007)

Need NP CPV Phase

PEW has practically

no weak phase in SM

t, ?

slide78

+0.0500.025

-0.0970.012

?

A lot of (hadronic) finesse

d

p0

_

d

b

s

B-

K-

u

u

World

= +0.1470.028> 5s

Experiment is Firm

DAKp~ 0 expected

Why aPuzzle ?

Large C ?

Large EWPenguin?

Baek, London, PLB653, 249 (2007)

Need NP CPV Phase

PEW has practically

no weak phase in SM

t, ?

t, t’

4th Gen. in EWP Natural

nondecoupling

slide79

On Boxes and Z Penguins

GIM, charm,K

small ’/, K  pnn (still waiting)

heavy top, sin2f1/b

Z dominance for heavy top

1986  2002

Most Flavor/CPV learned from these diagrams/processes

slide80

On Boxes and Z Penguins

Nondecoupling

GIM, charm,K

∵ Large Yukawa!

small ’/, K  pnn (still waiting)

heavy top, sin2f1/b

Bs

Z dominance for heavy top

AFB

1986  2002

All w/ 3-generations,

Just wait if there’s a 4th

D !

b’,t’ @ LHC

slide81

b  d

impose

From b → s study

4 x 4 Unitarity ➯ Constraints

SM3

We need to deal with mixing matrix in detail to keep Unitarity

b  s

Kaon

Cross Check !

constrain s d from k physics

(E. Pallante et al.)

(J. Bijnens et al.)

well-satisfy !

Constrain s  dfrom K Physics

(shaded)

“Standard”

No SM3 solution

Therefore….

slide83

well-satisfy

vs Vub ~ 0.01e-ig

Disfavored

Hard to tell apart (non-trivial) with present precision

∵ stringent s d

slide85

Fourth Generation

PRD 77, 014016 (2008)

Quoted byTsybychev at FPCP08

a: SM; b: 4 Gen.

better

data: LHCb MC (2 fb-1)

(FL and)AFB (and AI) favor the “opposite-sign C7 model”

Ali, Mannel, Morozumi, PLB273, 505 (1991)

Eigen at FPCP08

349 fb-1

386M

229M

slide86

D Mixing (Short-distance Only)

PDG06

310

270

From 4 x 4 Unitarity

mb’ =

230 GeV

x = Dm/G ~ 1 - 3 plausible

w/ Sizable (but not huge)

CPV in Mixing ~ -15%

N.B. SM LD could generate

y ~ 1%, x ≈ y

[Falk, Grossman, Ligeti, (Nir,) Petrov]

slide87

Implication for

Current E391A U.L.

Grossman-Nir

Very hard to measure

enhanced to or even higher !!

In general larger than !!

SM3

Ratecould be enhanced by up to almost two orders !!

∵ Large CPV Phase

slide88

~ SM3

Strength and Size of

b → d “Triangle” andb → s Quadrangle

b → d

b → s

negligible

b → s Quadrangle

Area ~ (-)30x b → d Triangle

(almost Triangle)

slide89

Consistency and b  sg Predictions

PDG ’06

SM3

SM3

BR OK ACP ~ 0 far away

beyond SuperB

Heavy t’ effect

decoupled

for b  sg

slide90

The Eureka Moment

Large t, t’ Yukawa

ca. late summer 2007…

Large Yukawa!

YuReKawa !

slide91

b → d

b → s

If VusVub shrinks to a point

Difference in area

for b → s Small

b → s Quadrangle

Area ~ (-)30x b → d Triangle

(almost Triangle)

2nd argument that is predominant CPV

4 generations: 3 indep. phases

measured

4 generations: 3 indep. phases

emergent

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