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Satellite Remote Sensing of Aviation Hazards. Gary P. Ellrod , CCM* NOAA/NESDIS-retired Granby, CT. * AMS Certified Consulting Meteorologist. Outline. Current capabilities of satellite data Fog and low clouds Inflight icing Turbulence Thunderstorms (initiation, convective gusts)

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Satellite remote sensing of aviation hazards

Satellite Remote Sensing of Aviation Hazards

Gary P. Ellrod , CCM*

NOAA/NESDIS-retired

Granby, CT

* AMS Certified Consulting Meteorologist

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008

Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Outline
Outline

  • Current capabilities of satellite data

    • Fog and low clouds

    • Inflight icing

    • Turbulence

    • Thunderstorms (initiation, convective gusts)

    • Volcanic ash

  • Future improvements (GOES-R)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


U s weather satellites
U.S. Weather Satellites

  • Polar (low orbit) (NOAA-18 / METOP-A)

    • 1 km resolution

    • 4 looks per day

    • 6 channels

  • Geostationary (GOES-11/12)

    • 4 km IR, 1 km visible

    • 15-30 min frequency

    • 5 channel Imager

    • 19 channel Sounder (10 km), hourly over CONUS

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Nighttime fog detection using goes multi spectral image data
Nighttime Fog Detection Using GOES Multi-spectral Image Data

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Fog in the northeast 14 june 2001
Fog in the Northeast: 14 June 2001

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Goes low cloud base product
GOES Low Cloud Base Product

  • Based on GOES 11mm-3.9 mm and surface minus GOES cloud top temperatures (now available on AWIPS)

Red areas show where cloud bases <1000 ft are likely, green areas > 1000 ft, blue are cirrus clouds.


Fog depth estimates
Fog Depth Estimates

  • Estimates of fog depth also possible based on 11mm-3.9 mm temperature difference (to forecast burn off time)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Snow and fog using visible imagery
Snow and Fog Using Visible Imagery

Snow

Snow

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Fog Discrimination with 3.9mm Imagery

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Goes icing risk product
GOES Icing Risk Product

  • Multi-channel threshold technique

    • Merged with Sounder cloud top heights

  • Product available hourly day and night

  • Strengths

    • Good spatial, temporal coverage

    • Good POD (~50-75%), low FAR (~25%)

  • Weaknesses

    • Obscuration by high clouds

    • Unable to distinguish SLD regions

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


GOES Combined Icing + Cloud Tops (‘ICECAP’)Available at: http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/opdb/aviation/icg.html

Icing intensity (3=mod, 4=mod/sev), aircraft type, altitude (feet)


Goes water vapor ir winds

Jet Stream

GOES Water Vapor + IR Winds

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Detection of mountain waves using water vapor imagery

GOES-12 IR, 13 Nov 2003

Mountain

Waves

GOES-12 WV, 13 Nov 2003

Detection of Mountain Waves Using Water Vapor Imagery

Low and mid-Tropospherice waves

can be seen in GOES 6.7 mm water

Vapor imagery, but not in IR or

visible

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Total column ozone from goes sounder
Total Column Ozone from GOES Sounder

Stratospheric

Intrusion

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Convective initiation
Convective Initiation

  • Critical for air traffic management

  • GOES Visible Imagery Applications (boundary interactions, stability, etc)

  • Stability and moisture Products from Sounder (Lifted Index, PW, Cinh)

  • Automated Nowcast Products

    • Convective Initiation (UW-CIMSS and U. of Alabama-Huntsville)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Convective initiation ci product u of ala huntsvile u of wisconsin cimss
Convective Initiation (CI) Product(U. of Ala-Huntsvile/ U. of Wisconsin CIMSS)

  • Uses satellite parameters to identify convective clouds:

    • IR temp. change

    • WV - IR temp. difference

  • Cloud motion vectors to advect developing clouds, produce nowcast

CI valid 2000Z, 4 May 2003

Radar, 2100Z, 4 May 2003


Wet microburst severity index

*

Wet Microburst Severity Index

  • Uses GOES Sounder retrieval data

  • Based on instability and vertical distribution of moisture (CAPE, dθe/dz)

  • Correlates well with observed peak surface wind gusts

WMSI > 200 indicates wind gusts > 65

knots possible. 85 knot gusts were

reported at Patuxent River, Maryland

at 2100 UTC (*).

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Composite split window imagery mt spurr sept 1992 noaa avhrr
Composite “Split Window” ImageryMt. Spurr, Sept. 1992, NOAA-AVHRR

(Schneider et al 1992)


International warning system vaacs
International Warning System (VAACs)

Established by International Civil Aeronautical Organization (ICAO) in mid-1990’s

Volcanically active regions source: Smithsonian Inst.


Technology outlook operational spacecraft
Technology OutlookOperational Spacecraft

  • Near-Term

    • GOES-N (launched May 2006) through P

      • Improved navigation, power to operate through satellite eclipse (Spring, Fall)

  • Mid-Long Term

    • NPOESS VIIRS imager (NPP prototype launch in 2010)

      • Twenty-two bands at 370 to 740 m resolution

      • Includes day/night visible

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Technology outlook operational spacecraft1
Technology OutlookOperational Spacecraft

  • Long-Term

    • GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (2015)

      • Sixteen spectral bands

      • Resolution: 0.5 km visible, 2 km IR

      • Five minute CONUS, 15 min Full Disk

    • GOES-R Lightning Mapper

    • GOES Hyper-spectral Sounder - ????

      • Hyper-spectral capabilities, hourly global coverage

      • Good resolution (4 km horizontal, ~1 km vertical)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Abi improvements

GOES-R

GOES-I/P

1/5 Disc

Full Disc

ABI Improvements

5 Minute Coverage

ABI covers the earth approximately five times faster than the current Imager.


Imager coverage in 30 minutes
Imager Coverage in ~30 minutes

Full Disk

N. Hemisphere

CONUS

Mesoscale


Ir resolution abi versus goes 12
IR Resolution – ABI versus GOES-12

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Use of 1 6 m m near ir on abi
Use of 1.6 mm “Near-IR” on ABI

1.6 mm


Simulated goes r fog image based on avhrr ir 3 7 m m and 11 0 m m
Simulated GOES-R Fog ImageBased on AVHRR IR (3.7 mm and 11.0 mm)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Goes r icing product nasa larc
GOES-R Icing Product (NASA LARC)

Explicit parameters from

GOES (droplet size, liquid

Water path) can estimate

Potential icing severity


Simulated water vapor imagery low mid high on abi
Simulated Water Vapor Imagery (Low, Mid, High) on ABI

Observed GOES-12 Band 3 (6.5 micron)

Simulated ABI Band 9 (7.0 micron)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Automated turbulence detection goes r water vapor u of wisconsin cimss
Automated Turbulence Detection – GOES-R Water Vapor(U. of Wisconsin – CIMSS)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Simulated goes r ash image based on modis ir near ir visible channels
Simulated GOES-R Ash ImageBased on MODIS IR, Near-IR, Visible Channels

  • Volcanic ash (red)

    • Composite of 8.5, 11, 12mm channels

  • Land (green)

    • Near-IR (1.6mm)

  • Ocean/ice clouds (blue)

    • Visible (0.6mm)

Popocatepetl, 20 Dec 2000, 1715 UTC

Based on data from Terra MODIS

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Geostationary lightning mapper glm
Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

  • Detects total strikes: in cloud, cloud to

  • Day/night total lightning (in cloud, intra-cloud, and cloud to ground)

    • Compliments today’s land based systems that only measures cloud to ground (about 15% of the total lightning)

  • Increased coverage over oceans and land

    • Currently no ocean coverage, and limited land coverage in dead zones

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Example from lightning imaging sensor lis

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

http://thunder.nsstc.nasa.gov/lms/

Example from Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

Supercell

Storm

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Temperature

Moisture

Simulations of Low vs High Spectral Resolution RetrievalsGeo-I gets <1 K rms for 1 km T(p) and <10% rms for 2 km RH(p)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Capability: Vertical Profiling

BT(K)

Hyperspectral sounder on geo will provide rapid observations need to monitor hurricane eye temperature anomaly, which is a surrogate measurement of hurricane intensity

AIRS

alone

moisture

AIRS

alone

temperature

Eye

Eye

Temperature and moisture cross section along AIRS scan line 119, demonstrating profiling capability, but AIRS does not provide the monitoring requirement

BT(K)

Analysis courtesy of Jun Li, CIMSS.


Summary
Summary

  • Satellite remote sensing is critical in providing needed observations to support aviation warnings and forecasts

  • Future instruments will provide excellent opportunities for improved products

  • Much work is needed to fully utilize future deluge of high quality data!

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Internet resources
Internet Resources:

  • GOES Aviation Products (Imager and Sounder)

    • http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/opdb/aviation/(NESDIS)

    • http://weather.msfc.nasa.gov/goesprod/ (NASA GHCC)

    • http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/NEXSAT.html (NRL-Monterey)

  • GOES-R Information

    • http://www.goes-r.gov/(GOES Program Office)

    • http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes_r/(UW-CIMSS)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

  • Slides obtained from:

    • Brian Motta (COMET)

    • Ken Pryor (NESDIS)

    • Tim Schmit (NESDIS)

    • William Smith, Jr. (NASA)

    • Anthony Wimmers (UW-CIMSS)

    • Kris Bedka (UW-CIMSS)

Aviation Weather Users Workshop, Nov 18-19, 2008 Islip/Macarthur Airport, NY


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