Mgmt 383
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Mgmt 383. Chapter 8 Selecting Human Resources Spring 2009. HR Staff Initial reception. Conducts screening interview. Administers pre-employment tests. Obtains reference information. Refers top candidates to upper level management. Conducts post-offer physical exams.

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Mgmt 383

Mgmt 383

Chapter 8

Selecting Human Resources

Spring 2009


Selection responsibilities

HR Staff

Initial reception.

Conducts screening interview.

Administers pre-employment tests.

Obtains reference information.

Refers top candidates to upper level management.

Conducts post-offer physical exams.

Evaluates the selection process

Operating Managers

Submit HR requisitions.

Participate in the selection process (search committees).

Interview finalists.

Make final selection.

Provide follow up information on suitability of new hires.

Selection Responsibilities


Placement v selection

Placement v. Selection

  • Placement – Fitting the person to the right job.

  • Selection - The process of choosing individuals who have the relevant qualifications to fill jobs in the organization.


Types of fit

Types of “Fit”

  • Person/Job Fit – matching the individual’s KSA with the characteristics of the job.

    • A staunch individualist being assigned to a SDWT is not a good fit.

    • Interpersonal abilities should the interpersonal demands of the job.

  • Person/Organization Fit – congruence between individuals and organizational factors (cultural compatibility)


Criterion and predictors

Criterion and Predictors

  • Selection Criterion - a characteristic that a person must possess in order to do a job successfully (reasoning ability, intelligence, motor skills, etc.). Should be derived from job analysis.

  • Predictors– measurable indicators of the selection criterion.

    • Validity – the extent to which a predictor actually what it is supposed to predict (usually job performance)

    • Reliability– the extent to which the predictor is consistent in its results.


Steps in conducting concurrent validation

Steps in Conducting Concurrent Validation

  • Conduct job analysis.

  • Identify critical TDR.

  • Determine relevant KSAs.

  • Select criteria for job success (job performance).

  • Choose experimental predictors (employment test).

  • Administer predictors (employment test) to current employees.

  • Score the test

  • Compare the results (Correlation between predictor and criterion).


Predictive validation

Predictive Validation

  • The “test” is given to applicants who hired.

  • At the conclusion of a period of time (probationary period or evaluation cycle) performance is evaluated.

  • Test scores and work performance are then correlated.

  • Moderate to strong correlations would validate the “test.”


Standards for selection criteria

Standards for Selection Criteria

  • Clearly identified KSA.

  • Must be based on accurate job-related predictors of future job performance.

    • Validation is absolutely critical.


Selection process

Selection Process

Applicant Job Interest

Pre-Employment Screening

Application Forms

Background Investigations

Conditional Offer*

Medical Exam/Drug Test

Placement

Selection

Interviews

Employment

testing

*May have additional interviews


Realistic job preview

Realistic Job Preview

  • Realistic Job Preview (RJP) - Provides the applicant with a realistic set of job expectations.

    • Some candidates may deselect themselves.

    • Reduces future dissatisfaction.


Pre employment screening

Pre-Employment Screening

  • Determines whether applicants have the minimum qualifications.

    • Electronic Screening – computers are used to screen electronically submitted applications.

    • Application Forms – records applicants desire for employment, applicant profile, source for flow analysis, basis for evaluating effectiveness of selection process.


Applicant forms

Applicant Forms

  • Application forms serve four basic purposes:

    • Provides a record of the applicant’s desire to obtain a given position.

    • Provides interviewers with a profile of the candidate to be used during the interview.

    • Becomes the basic employee record for those candidates who are hired.

    • Can provide data for research into the effectiveness of the selection process.


Applicant forms1

Applicant Forms

  • Application forms should contain disclaimers and notices:

    • Employer retains EAW rights.

    • Permission to contact references.

    • Notifies candidate of required drug tests, physical exams, abilities tests, background checks, credit checks, etc.

    • Application time limits (usually applications are goof for only 6 months).

    • Consequences of falsifying information.


Applicant forms2

Applicant Forms

  • Limit application information to job-related data.

  • Applications an other hiring-related forms are usually maintain on file for three years.

  • EEOC discourages the following:

    • Marital status

    • Height/weight requirements

    • Number and ages of children

    • Information about spouse

    • Date of HS graduation

    • Who to contact in an emergency


Applicant forms3

Applicant Forms

  • Form I-9 (within 3 business days of hiring).*

    • Verification of applicant’s identity.

    • Verification of applicant’s authorization to work in U.S.

  • Weighted Application Blanks (WAB) - Weights or numeric values are assigned to responses on the application.

*8 C.F.R. § 274a.2(b)(ii). Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(viii) of this section, an employer, his or her agent, or anyone acting directly or indirectly in the interest thereof, must within three business days of the hire:


Resumes as applications

Resumes as Applications

  • Resumes:

    • Not really informative.

    • Can be falsified or exaggerated.

    • Individuals may inadvertently provide potentially “unlawful” information.


Applicant flow information

Applicant Flow Information

  • Employer Information Report (EEO-1)

    • Employers who hold federal contracts and subcontracts.

    • Employers who receive federal grant and aid money.

    • Employers in the private sector with > 100 employees.

  • Used in applicant flow analysis by EEOC and utilization analysis by OFCCP.

  • Data is collected through an applicant flow form.


Employment testing

Employment Testing

  • For EEO purposes, the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection defines as “test” as any employment requirement.

    • Weight

    • Education

    • Work experience

    • Ability tests

    • Aptitude tests

    • Work sample tests


Employment testing1

Employment Testing

  • Ability Tests - assess thinking, memory reasoning, mathematical, and verbal abilities the applicant currently possesses (skills that have already been learned).

    • Cognitive Ability Tests (language, math and reasoning skills).

    • Physical Ability Tests (strength, endurance, etc.).

    • Psychomotor Tests (dexterity).

    • Work Sample Tests (actual work tasks).

    • Situational Judgmental Tests.


Personality testing

Personality Testing

  • Personality Tests

    • “Big Five” Personality Traits

      • Conscientiousness (Achievement oriented)*

      • Agreeableness (Cooperative)

      • Openness to Experience (Flexibility)

      • Extrovertism (Sociability) [useful in sales positions]

      • Emotional Stability

        *Related to job success across most organizations

    • Meyers-Briggs - identifies and describes 16 distinctive personality types that result from the interactions among the preferences selected on a questionnaire.

  • Fakeability of personality tests reduces their validity.


Personality testing1

Personality Testing

  • Garry Kranz (January 8, 2008).Academics: Psych Tests are Poor Indicators for Hiring. Workforce Management.

  • Industrial psychologists say the tests remain an incomplete means of finding top candidates.

  • Companies may want to rethink their use of personality assessments when recruiting and hiring, according to a group of five industrial psychologists. The five academics, whose conclusions were published recently in the journal Personnel Psychology, say psychological tests often show very little correlation to a person’s actual job performance.

  • The tests themselves remain plagued by several limitations, most notably that there are no reliable means of ferreting out “faked” answers or other exaggerations by job applicants. One suggested improvement: permitting applicants to expand on their answers by providing clarifying details, as opposed to the one-word multiple-choice answers typically offered.


Honesty integrity testing

Honesty/Integrity Testing

  • Polygraph Tests – most employers are prohibited the use of polygraph testing under Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.

    • State & federal governments are exempted.

    • Security, banks, & pharmaceutical companies are exempted.

  • Honesty/Integrity Tests -low validity and may cause disparate impact.

    • Easily faked.


The validity of specific categories of employment tests

The Validity of Specific Categories of Employment Tests

Method Correlation Coefficient

Ability Tests .53

Skill Tests .44

Reference Checks .26

Class Rank/GPA .21

Experience .18

Interviews .14

Education* .10

*Includes HS/GED requirements.


Selection interviews

Selection Interviews

  • Structured Interviews - set of “structured questions given to all applicants.

  • Unstructured Interviews - nondirective questions are given.


Selection interviews1

Selection Interviews

  • Biographical Interview – candidate describes, in chronological sequence, his or her past experiences.

  • Behavioral DescriptionInterviews – candidate explains how he or she reacted to, or solved, a particular problem (actual) in the past.

    • How have handled under performing employees?

    • How have you dealt with FMLA abuses?


Selection interviews2

Selection Interviews

  • Competency Interviews – a variant of behavioral interviews in which questions are design to develop a profile based upon a list of competencies for a particular job (abilities to work in ambiguous job settings, e.g.).

  • Situational Interview - how would you react in the following situation (hypothetical)?

    • Suppose an employee entered the workplace with a gun. What would you do?


Less structured selection interviews

Less Structured Selection Interviews

  • Nondirective Interviews - begins as an unstructured question from which more specific one are developed.

    • “What was something you really enjoyed about your last job?

    • The response will lead to a more directive question, followed by another.

  • Stress Interviews - the RJ story.


Selection interviews3

Selection Interviews

  • Panel Team Interviews - several interviewers question the applicant simultaneously.

  • Team Interviews – individual is interviewed by members of the team to which he or she will be assigned and with whom he/she will work.

  • Video Interviews – video conferencing.


Questions to avoid

Questions to Avoid

  • Yes/no responses.

  • Leading questions. "What do you think about employee empowerment? Many people are opposed to it, by the way."

  • Questions that rarely produce true answers. Do you value diversity? (Who is going to say they don’t)

  • Obvious questions. Are interest in working for XYZ?

  • Questions that are not job-related. Are you for Obama? What do you think about Hillary Clinton?

  • Questions that are potentially discriminatory. How old are your kids? Is your wife Hispanic?

  • My personal favorite: What college did you graduate from? (Shows that they haven’t looked at your resume)


Shortcomings of interviews

Shortcomings of Interviews

  • Prone to snap judgements

  • Halo effect.

  • Negative comments/characteristics are weighted more heavy than positive ones.

  • Personal biases and stereotyping. (Graduates of State Kollage at Stark Vegas, e.g.)

  • Cultural noise - trying to please the interview rather than expressing your true feelings.


Background investigations

Background Investigations

  • Typical information verified:

    • Academic references

    • Prior work experience

    • Financial references

    • Law enforcement records

    • Personal references (among the weakest in terms of validity)

  • Between 30 percent to 50 percent of job applicants either lie or exaggerate on applications.


Background investigations1

Background Investigations

  • Potential Legal Problems:

    • Unfavorable recommendations may result in defamation suits (The truth is proof against defamation).

    • References of a positive nature for an unfit former employee may result in negligence suits.

    • Negligent hiring suits can occur if you fail to check references.

    • Negligent retention occurs when you continue to employ an unfit person who may pose a threat to the safety of others.


Medical examinations

Medical Examinations

  • You mayNOT ask an applicant about current or past medical history untilafter a conditional job offer has been made.

  • The ADA has essentially madepre-employmentmedical examinationsunlawful.


Prohibited medical questions

Prohibited Medical Questions

  • Sample of medical questions that the EEOC says you cannot ask:

    • Do you have any physical limitations?

    • Do you have any disabilities?

    • Have you ever filed for or collected worker’s compensation?

    • Have you ever been treated for the following medical conditions?


Prohibited medical questions1

Prohibited Medical Questions

  • Sample of medical questions that the EEOC says you cannot ask:

    • How many times have you been absent from work due to illness during the previous two years?

    • Why are you using crutches? Did you have an accident?

    • Have you ever consulted a psychologist or psychiatrist?


Permitted medical questions

Permitted Medical Questions

  • Sample of medical questions that the EEOC says you canask:

    • Can you perform the essential functions of the job with or without accommodation? Describe the accommodations you may require.

    • Describe your attendance at your last job

    • What were your past duties? Which were most challenging?


Other employment tests

Other Employment “Tests”

  • Drug Testing

    • May be required under the Drug-Free Workplace Act.

    • Should be job-related.

    • Employees who receive substance abuse rehabilitation are covered under the ADA.

  • Genetic Testing

    • Is likely to violate the ADA.


Legal concerns

Legal Concerns

  • Disparate Impact (Usually determined by Applicant Flow Analysis)

  • Testers

  • Affect on image and corporate legitimacy


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