IAS, Vienna, 20 July 2010, Social & Sexual Networks
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IAS, Vienna, 20 July 2010, Social & Sexual Networks. Social Capital & Reduced Female Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe. S Gregson , P Mushati, H Grusin, M Nhamo, C Schumacher, CA Nyamukapa, C Campbell.

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S Gregson , P Mushati, H Grusin, M Nhamo, C Schumacher, CA Nyamukapa, C Campbell

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S gregson p mushati h grusin m nhamo c schumacher ca nyamukapa c campbell

IAS, Vienna, 20 July 2010, Social & Sexual Networks

Social Capital & Reduced Female Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe

S Gregson, P Mushati, H Grusin, M Nhamo, C Schumacher, CA Nyamukapa, C Campbell


S gregson p mushati h grusin m nhamo c schumacher ca nyamukapa c campbell

Social Capital & Reduced Female Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe

Background: Social capital refers to the community cohesion that results from positive aspects of community life, particularly from high levels of civic engagement as reflected in membership of local voluntary organisations (Putnam 2000)

Research questions: Find out whether, in rural Zimbabwe, ….

(i)Communities with greater social capital (community group membership) have lower rates of HIV infection

(ii)Individuals in community groups are more successful in avoiding HIV infection

Method: Statistical comparison of HIV incidence & adoption of safer behaviour*, 1998-2003, in members & non-members of community groups at baseline, using prospective data from a population-based survey in Manicaland province

* Reducing or maintaining a low rate of partner change


S gregson p mushati h grusin m nhamo c schumacher ca nyamukapa c campbell

Social Capital & Reduced Female Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe: Ecological Level Associations (Women)

HIV incidence

Safer behaviour

N = 88 clusters

N = 70 clusters

OLS Coeff = -.09, p<.001

Age-adj. Coeff = -.06, p=.052

OLS Coeff = .13, p=.011

Age-adj. Coeff = .06, p=.2


S gregson p mushati h grusin m nhamo c schumacher ca nyamukapa c campbell

Social Capital & Reduced Female Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe: Individual Level Associations (Women, N=2,374)

HIV incidence

Safer behaviour

Any group vs. no group: 1.0% vs. 2.2%

IRR = .45 [.3-.7]; aIRR = .64 [.4-.9]

Any group vs. no group: 96% vs. 90%

OR = 2.9 [1.9-4.4]; aOR = 1.8 [1.2-2.8]


S gregson p mushati h grusin m nhamo c schumacher ca nyamukapa c campbell

Social Capital & Reduced Female Vulnerability to HIV Infection in Rural Zimbabwe

IMPLICATIONS

  • First study to measure the impact of social capital on HIV incidence & associated risk behaviour

  • In east Zimbabwe, civic engagement supported women in reducing their risk of infection (1998-2003) & contributed to a decline in HIV prevalence

  • Further analysis suggests this may have occurred through increases in knowledge transfer & self-efficacy

  • Civic engagement showed no effect for men

  • Support for women’s community groups could be an effective HIV prevention strategy in countries with large-scale HIV epidemics

  • More studies are needed to:

  • (i) Measure & compare levels of civic engagement in different populations

  • (ii)Establish the generalisability of the findings from eastern Zimbabwe

  • (iii)Investigate the feasibility of generating social capital exogenously


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