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Poverties. Robert Walker. Working assumptions. Poverty does not exist Low income exists A consequence of unequal income distribution. Income distribution. Number of people. Low income. Income. Working assumptions. Poverty does not exist Low income exists

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Poverties

Poverties

Robert Walker


Working assumptions
Working assumptions

  • Poverty does not exist

  • Low income exists

    • A consequence of unequal income distribution


Income distribution
Income distribution

Number of people

Low income

Income


Working assumptions1
Working assumptions

  • Poverty does not exist

  • Low income exists

    • A consequence of unequal income distribution

  • Low income in relation to need - hardship exists


Income distribution1
Income distribution

Number of people

Low income

Income


Welfare distribution
Welfare distribution

Number of people

Hardship

Income to needs

Income


Working assumptions2

Need is a relative concept

Socially constructed

Poverty is a politically constructed

Defined arbitrarily

Predicates action

Poverty does not exist

Low income exists

A consequence of unequal income distribution

Low income in relation to need - hardship exists

Working assumptions


30 second summary
30 second summary

  • Poverty is not inevitable

  • Poverty is differentiated

    • Not one poverty but many

  • Poverty is shaped by time

    • Begins and ends

  • Shaped also by space

  • Poverty is shaped by individual agency

  • Poverty is experienced by people



Setting the poverty threshold

Median

1/2

1/2

Setting the poverty threshold

Poverty

line

Number of people

Equivalised income

Poverty

Income to needs

Income



Changing the poverty threshold 60 per cent of median

Median

1/2

1/2

Changing the poverty threshold60 per cent of median

Poverty

line

Number of people

Equivalised income

Poverty

Income to needs

Income


Changing the poverty threshold 60 per cent of median1

Median

60%

40%

Changing the poverty threshold60 per cent of median

Poverty

line

Number of people

Equivalised income

Poverty

Income to needs

Income





Incidence of poverty
Incidence of poverty

Poverty line

Number of people

Poverty

Income to needs

Income


Poverty line

Number of people

Poverty

Income to needs


Poverty line

Number of people

Poverty

Income to needs


Severity
Severity

Income to needs

Poverty

Poverty line

Poverty gap

Severity

mean

Number of people




Incidence of poverty1

Three year measures

Incidence of poverty

Number of people

Annual

Cumulative

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5


Prevalence of poverty 1990s
Prevalence of poverty, 1990s

Source OECD, 2001



Prevalence of poverty types mid 1990s
Prevalence of poverty types, mid 1990s

Long term poverty as percentage of three year ever poor

Source: OECD, 2001


Types of poverty relative risk uk
Types of poverty:Relative risk, UK

Source: OECD, 2001


Types of poverty relative risk us uk
Types of poverty:Relative risk, US & UK

UK

Source: OECD, 2001

USA

Poor at least once

Always poor

Permanent income poor


Italy relative risk

UK

USA

Italy:Relative risk

Italy

Source: OECD, 2001

Poor at least once

Always poor

Permanent income poor



Types of poverty
Types of poverty

Persistent

Non poor

Transient

Recurrent

Income

Poverty threshold

Occasional

Chronic

Permanent

Time


Childhood poverty in the us composition of the 38 who suffer poverty
Childhood poverty in the US: composition of the 38% who suffer poverty

Source: Walker with Ashworth, 1994


Childhood poverty in the us composition of currently poor
Childhood poverty in the US:composition of currently poor


Characteristics of poor us children
Characteristics of poor US children

Transient

Occasional

Recurrent

Persistent

Non-

white

White

One

parent

Chronic

Permanent

Two

parent


Poverty is shaped by time1
Poverty is shaped by time

  • Distribution of poverty across time helps to determine:

    • The kind of poverty experienced

      • Transient poverty differs from permanent poverty which differs from repeated spells

    • The incidence of poverty

      • Short spells mean higher prevalence

      • Long spells mean higher concentration


Poverty is shaped by time2
Poverty is shaped by time

  • Distribution of poverty across time helps to determine:

    • The kind of poverty experienced

      • Transient poverty differs from permanent poverty which differs from repeated spells

    • The incidence of poverty

      • Short spells mean higher prevalence

      • Long spells mean higher concentration

  • Structures and institutions affect the:

    • The incidence and distribution of poverty inducing events

    • The risk that such events will lead to poverty


Poverty is shaped by time3
Poverty is shaped by time

  • Distribution of poverty across time helps to determine:

    • the incidence of poverty

      • Short spells mean higher prevalence

      • Long spells mean higher concentration

    • The kind of poverty experienced

      • Transient poverty differs from permanent poverty which differs from repeated spells

  • Structures and institutions affect the:

    • The incidence and distribution of poverty inducing events

    • The risk that such events will lead to poverty

  • Individual agency does likewise



Coping strategies

Budgeting

Over time

Deferring

Forgoing

Borrowing

Managing demand

Shop frequently

Pander to wants

Resist children

Minimise risk

Coping strategies


Coping strategies1

Budgeting

Increase income

Get job

Sell non-essentials

Delay paying bills

Work on the side

Cash in insurance

Pawn valuables

Sell essentials

Seek charities

Petty crime

Prostitution

Begging

+ve

£

Social

acceptability

-ve

Coping strategies



Poverty is experienced as:

  • Relative

Jeff Moore


Poverty is experienced as:

  • Relative

  • Loss of dignity

Gordon Parks


Poverty is experienced as:

  • Relative

  • Loss of dignity

  • Being labelled

The Guardian


Poverty is experienced as:

  • Relative

  • Loss of dignity

  • Being labelled

  • Doing without

Murdo MacLoed


Poverty is experienced as:

  • Relative

  • Loss of dignity

  • Being labelled

  • Doing without

  • Being stressed

Gordon Parks


Poverty is experienced as:

  • Relative

  • Loss of dignity

  • Being labelled

  • Doing without

  • Being stressed

  • Being driven to crime

The Guardian


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Poverty is not inevitable

  • Not one poverty but many

  • Poverty is shaped by time and space

  • Poverty is multi-dimensional

  • Poverty is shaped by agency and experience

  • Policy must address

    • Different kinds of poverty

    • Intervene in people’s trajectories



What to take account of
What to take account of

Personal Consumption

PC

PC + SPR

Shared Property

Rights(Resources)

State Provided Commodities

PC + SPR + SPC

PC + SPC + SPC + Assets

PC + SPC + SPC + Assets + Dignity

PC+SPC+SPC+Assets+Dignity+Autonomy

Source: Baulch (1996)


Conclusions1
Conclusions

  • Poverty is not inevitable

  • Not one poverty but many

  • Poverty is shaped by time and space

  • Poverty is multi-dimensional

  • Poverty is shaped by agency and experience

  • Policy must address

    • Different kinds of poverty

    • Intervene in people’s trajectories




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