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Writing for Scientific Papers Lecture 10 of the Course “Medical English” for Sophomore Medical Students of Taipei Medical University School of Medicine Taipei Medical University. Winston W. Shen, M.D. Professor and Chairman Department of Psychiatry

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Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing for Scientific Papers

Lecture 10 of the Course “Medical English”

for Sophomore Medical Students of Taipei Medical University

School of Medicine Taipei Medical University

Winston W. Shen, M.D.

Professor and Chairman

Department of Psychiatry

Taipei Medical University College of Medicine

and Chief, Department of Psychiatry

TMU-Wan Fang Medical Center

Taipei,

TAIWAN

E-mail address: [email protected]


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

The Schedule for the Course “Medical English”

(Version of 3/29/07)

  • Week 1 (March 1) The Digestive System

  • Week 2 (March 8) The Respiratory System

  • Week 3 (March 15) The Cardiovascular System

  • Week 4 (March 22) The Musculoskeletal System

    (Turning in a 400-word essay on “My Visit to the Clinic (Hospital)” (in double-line space hard copy)

  • Week 5 (March 29) The Central Nervous System

  • Week 6 (April 5) No class (Spring break)

  • Week 7 (April 12) Urinary and Reproductive Systems

  • Week 8 (April 19) The First Examination

  • Week 9 (April 26) Medical Records

    (Turning in a 400-word essay on “My Favorite Book” (in double-line space hard copy)

  • Week 10 (May 3) Scientific Papers

  • Week 11 (May 10) Hematology

  • Week 12 (May 17) Infectious Diseases

  • Week 13 (May 24) The Second Examination

  • Week 14 (May 31) Endocrinology

    (Turning in a 400-word essay on “How to Be a Good Physician” (in double line space hard copy)

  • Week 15 (June 7) Immunology

  • Week 16 (June 14) Oncology

  • Week 17 (June 21) No Class

  • Week 18 (June 28) Final (The Third) Examination


The imrad writing

The IMRAD Writing

  • Introduction

  • Method

  • Results

  • and

  • Discussion


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

“Where shall I begin, please you Majesty?”

he asked.

“Begin at the beginning,” the King said gravely,

and go on till you come to the end, then stop.”

Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

Alice in Wonderland


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

“A bad beginning makes a bad ending.”

-- Euripides


How to write the results section what did i find

How to Write the Results Section(What did I find?)

  • To summarize the data collected and their

  • statistical treatment

  • To collect the study data in tables or figures

  • To make sure they can give independent stories

  • in tables or figures

  • To include only relevant data but give sufficient

  • details to justify the conclusion


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

“A tabular presentation of data is

often the heart, or better, the brain,

of a scientific paper.”

-- Peper Morgan


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

“If a man can group his ideas, then he is writer.”

-- Euripides


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Twenty-four-hour Cortisol Changes inDepressed Patients vs. Normal Controls

Sachar EJ et al.. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1973; 28 (7): 19-24.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Indications Approved by Drug and Food Administration* as of June 2006

Antimanic

indication

Prophylaxis

treatment

Treatment for

bipolar depression

Lithium

Valproate

Olanzapine

Olanzapine/fluoxetine (Symbyax)

Risperidone

Quetiapine

Ziprasidone

Aripiprazole

Lamotrigine

Carbamazepine ER (Equetro)

1975

1995

2000, 20031

2003, 20031

20041,2

2004

20042

2004

1978

2003

2005

2004

2003

2006

*Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) is not included here;

1Adding lithium or valproate can increase antimanic efficacy.

2Up to 3 months;

Modified from: Shen WW (2007), Clinical Psychopharmacology for the 21 Century, The Second Edition (Mandarin) Taipei: Hochi Publishing Co.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

“I can give birth to a baby, but I can

not produce the data you want.”

-- Yao-Chi Koa

Minister of Transportation

Replying at a congressional hearing

regarding the FTC scandal

in March 2006

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

To Simplify the Large Table

  • To remove unneeded rows and columns

  • To combine columns that are closedly related

    by using slashes or dashes

  • Not to repeat data that are already in the text or

    in another table

  • Not to repeat any label information in the

    heading that may already be in the title or

    the footnote

Mary Helen Briscoe 1995


Table 1 demographics

Table 1. Demographics

Healthy

Controls

39

26/13

30.5 ± 7.1

27 W/7B/5O

Recent Onset

Patients

26

14/12

30.3 ±6.7

9W/11B/6 0

First Episode

Patients

26

19/7

23.9 ±5.5a

19W/12B/410

Chronic

Patients

25

17/8

39.0 ± 86a

12W/10B/2O

n

M/F

Age

Race

M, male; F, female; W, white; O, other

aSignificantly different from Healthy Controls

A table from:Umbricht DSD, et al. Biological Psychiatry 2006; 59: 762-772

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Subjects characteristic and the mean lumber spin bone mass density ls bmd z scores original version

Subjects’ characteristic and the mean lumber spin bone mass density (LS-BMD) z scores (Original Version)

Number (%)

28 (100%)

16 (57%)

12 (43%)

17 (61%)

11 (39%)

21 (75%)

7 (25%)

13 (46%)

13 (46%)

7 (25%)

10 (36%)

11 (39%)

- Mean ± SD

2.46 ± 1.06

2.58 ± 1.31

2.31 ± 0.60

2.04 ± 0.79

3.12 ± 1.12

2.29 ± 0.96

2.97 ± 1.25

2.01 ± 0.75

2.89 ± 1.24

1.66 ± 0.66

2.13 ± 0.74

3.28 ± 0.99

p-Value

NS a

p < 0.01

NS

p< 0.01

A-Bb, p < 0.05

W-Bc, p < 0.05

Variable

All subjects

Sex

Male

Female

Age (years)

2-10

11-24

Taking anticonvulsants

Absent

Present

Disable pattern

Non-quadriplegia

Quadriplegia

Mobility level

Ambulatory (A)

Wheelchaire (W)

Bedridden (B)

a. Not significant

b. The mean difference of LS-BMD z score between A and B subjects

c. The mean difference of LS-BMD z score between W and B subjects


Subjects characteristic and the mean lumber spin bone mass density ls bmd z scores problems shown

Subjects’ characteristic and the mean lumber spin bone mass density (LS-BMD) z scores (Problems Shown)

Number (%)

28 (100%)

16 (57%)

12 (43%)

17 (61%)

11 (39%)

21 (75%)

7 (25%)

13 (46%)

13 (46%)

7 (25%)

10 (36%)

11 (39%)

Mean ± SD

-2.46 ± 1.06

-2.58 ± 1.31

-2.31 ± 0.60

-2.04 ± 0.79

-3.12 ± 1.12

-2.29 ± 0.96

-2.97 ± 1.25

-2.01 ± 0.75

-2.89 ± 1.24

-1.66 ± 0.66

-2.13 ± 0.74

-3.28 ± 0.99

p-Value

NSa

p< 0.01

NS

p < 0.01

A-Bb, p < 0.05

W-Bc, p < 0.05

Variable

All subjects

Sex

Male

Female

Age (years)

2-10

11-24

Taking anticonvulsants

Absent

Present

Disable pattern

Non-quadriplegia

Quadriplegia

Mobility level

Ambulatory (A)

Wheelchaire (W)

Bedridden (B)

a. Not significant

b. The mean difference of LS-BMD z score between A and B subjects

c. The mean difference of LS-BMD z score between W and B subjects


Subjects characteristic and the mean lumber spin bone mass density z scores n 28 revision

Subjects’ characteristic and the mean lumber spin bone mass density z scores (n = 28) (Revision)

Number (%)

16 (57%)

12 (43%)

17 (61%)

11 (39%)

21 (75%)

7 (25%)

13 (46%)

13 (46%)

7 (25%)

10 (36%)

11 (39%)

Mean ± SD

-2.58 ± 1.31

-2.31 ± 0.60

-2.04 ± 0.79a

-3.12 ± 1.12

-2.29 ± 0.96

-2.97 ± 1.25

-2.01 ± 0.75b

-2.89 ± 1.24

-1.66 ± 0.66c

-2.13 ± 0.74d

-3.28 ± 0.99

Variable

Sex

Male

Female

Age (years)

2-10

11-24

Taking anticonvulsants

Absent

Present

Disable pattern

Non-quadriplegic

Quadriplegic

Mobility level

Ambulatory

Wheelchaire

Bedridden

aSignificantly different, vs. the age group of 11-24 years, p< 0.01

bSignificantly different, vs. the qualdriplegic group, p < 0.05

cSignificantly different, vs. bedridden group, p < 0.005

dSignificantly different, vs. bedridden group, p < 0.05


Editing the table example 1 1 3 original version

Editing the TableExample 1 (1/3) Original Version

Table 3. Prevalence of ESR and CRP in JRA patients at the time of diagnosis, and after treatment for three and six months

Time tested

Pre-treatment

Treatment for 3 months

Treatment for 6 months

ESR > 20 mm/h

46/53 (86%)

24/43 (55.8%)

26/52 (50.0%)

ESR > 20 mm/h

25/53 (47.2%)

16/43 (37.2%)

17/52 (32.7%)

Pa-value

0.05

0.13

0.11

Expressed as the number of patients with positive results over total patients

checked (percentage)

aCalculated by Fisher’s exact test


Editing the table example 1 2 3 problems indicated

Editing the TableExample 1 (2/3) Problems Indicated

Table 3. Prevalence of ESR and CRP in JRA patients at the time of diagnosis, and after treatment for three and six months

Time tested

Pre-treatment

Treatment for 3 months

Treatment for 6 months

ESR > 20 mm/h

46/53 (86%)

24/43 (55.8%)

26/52 (50.0%)

ESR > 20 mm/h

25/53 (47.2%)

16/43 (37.2%)

17/52 (32.7%)

Pa-value

0.05

0.13

0.11

Expressed as the number of patients with positive results over total patients

checked (percentage)

aCalculated by Fisher’s exact test


Editing the table example 1 3 3 final version

Editing the TableExample 1 (3/3) Final Version

Table 3. Prevalence of in JRA patients’ ESR and CRP at the time of diagnosis, and after treatment for three and six months

Time tested

Pre-treatment

Treatment for 3 months

Treatment for 6 months

ESR > 20 mm/h

46/53 (86%)

24/43 (55.8%)

26/52 (50.0%)

ESR > 20 mm/h

25/53 (47.2%)

16/43 (37.2%)

17/52 (32.7%)

p-valuea

0.05

0.13

0.11

Expressed as the number of patients with positive results over total patients

checked (percentage)

aFisher’s exact test


Not to repeat any information in tables or figures in the text

Not to Repeat Any Information in Tables or Figures in the Text

  • Table 1 lists patients’ clinical characteristics.

  • Fig. 2 represents the differences of HAM-D

  • scores of the two groups.

  • The patients had the mean age of 35 (ranges

  • 19-30) years.

  • Do not paraphrase the information in the tables or

  • in the figures in the text of the result section.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Incidence of Adverse Events of Number (%) of Patients

Receiving Mirtazapine or Paroxetine

Mirtazapine group

( n = 128)

Paroxetine group

( n = 126)

Adverse event

Dry mouth 34 (26.6)* 13 (10.3)

Weight gain 14 (10.9)* 0

Nausea 8 (6.3) 24 (19.0)*

Flatulence 4 (3.1) 15 (11.9)*

Tremor 5 (3.9) 14 (11.1)*

Somnolence 39 (30.5) 37 (29.4)

Fatigue 22 (17.2) 15 (11.9)

Headache 20 (15.6) 31 (24.6)

Insomnia 15 (11.7) 14 (11.1)

Dizziness 20 (15.6) 18 (14.3)

Constipation 15 (11.7) 14 (11.1)

Diarrhea 19 (14.8) 22 (17.5)

Sweating increased 8 (6.3) 17 (13.5)

*Significantly different, p < 0.05, Fisher’s exact test

Schatzberg AF, et al. Am J Geriat Psychiatry 2002; 10: 541-550


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

The Comorbidity between Six Major Psychiatric Disorders as Assessed by the Tetrachoric Correlation(N = 1,030 Female-Female Twin Pairs)

Panic Major

Phobia GAD disorder Bulimia depression Alcoholism

Phobia. . .

GAD0.382. . .

Panic disorder0.520 0.484. . .

Bulimia 0.181 0.234 0.221 . . .

Major depression0.293 0.677 0.427 0.232 . . .

Alcoholism 0.237 0.281 0.275 0.316 0.329 . . .

All tetrachorics are significant at p < 0.000

GAD indicates generalized anxiety disorder

From: Kendler KS et al, Archieves of General Psychiatry 1995; 52: 374-383


Percentage of psychiatric outpatient prescription number between the us vs taiwan

Percentage of Psychiatric Outpatient Prescription Numberbetween the US vs. Taiwan

%

70-

60-

50-

40-

30-

20-

10-

0-

62.3

*46.3

Number of outpatients

US

32.1

TW

18.1

US

TW

Antidepressants

Benzodiazepines

*Combining anxiolytics 24.1% with hypnotics 22.2%

Adapted by Shen WW, based on data of: (1) Pincus HA, et al., Archives of General Psychiatry

1999; 56: 441-449, (2) Su TP, et al., Chinese Medical Journal (Taipei) 2002; 65: 378-391

Shen WW. Antidepressants are underused in Taiwan. Taiwanese Journal of Psychiatry 2004; 18 (2): 77-78.


Chronic antidepressant treatment increases bdnf expression in hippocampus

Chronic Antidepressant Treatment Increases BDNF Expression in Hippocampus

200-

150-

100-

50-

0-

*

*

*

*

*

BDNF mRNA (% of vehicle)

Veh

FLX

DEP

STL

TCP

ECS

MOR

COC

HAL

Note: Veh, vehicle; STL, sertraline; DEP, desipramine; TCP, tranycypromine; FLX, fluoxetine; ECS, electroconvulsive shock; MOR, morphine; COC, cocaine; HAL, haloperidol

Significantly different vs. vehicle (p < 0.001)

Adapted from: Nibuya M, Morinobu S, Duman RS, Journal of Neuroscience, 1995; 15: 7539-7547


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Association between Depression Duration

and Cerebral Gray Matter Volume

in 19 Female Patients with Recurrent Major Depressive Disordera

650-

600-

550-

500-

450-

400-

350-

Cerebral gray matter volume (ml)

100

0

50

150

200

250

300

350

400

Duration of depression (months)

ar=-0.66, df=16, P=0.003

Lampe IK, et al. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003: 160: 2052-2054


Response and remission rates duloxetine fluoxetine vs placebo

Response and Remission RatesDuloxetine, Fluoxetine vs. Placebo

100-

80-

60-

40-

20-

0-

Duloxetine

Fluoxetine

Placebo

P = 0.02

64

56

52

48

% of patients

18%

32

30

0

Response

Remission

Goldstein DJ, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002; 63: 225-231.


Writing the method section how did i do it

Writing the Method Section How did I do it?

• To describe the procedures used to come up

with the data collected in the past tense

•To report the statistics used in tables or

figures in the past tense


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Fluoxetine

for Acute Treatment of Minor Depressive Disorder (1/2)

226 patients

recruited

64 patients not randomized

4—major depressive disorder

14—not a minor depressive disorder

4—having adverse effects

6— inability to be contacted

22—patients’ withdrawal to participate

10—medically contraindicated condition

3—other protocol violation

4-week

placebo

lead-in

162 patients* randomized

81 received fluoxetine

81 received placebo

*Female 59.3%, Caucasian 90.1%, average age 43.5 years (SD = 11.7, range = 18-72)

Judd LL, et al. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2004: 161 (10) : 1864-1871


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

The Design of the 605 Study:

A Placebo-controlled 18-month Trial of

Lamotrigine and Lithium Maintenance Treatment

Preliminary

open-label phase

Screen

Double-blind phase

Lamotrigine

400 mg/d, n = 47

Concomitant

psychotropics

Lamotrigine

100-200 mg/d

Lamotrigine

200 mg/d, n = 124

Bipolar I

disorder

currently

or recently

depressed

Lamotrigine

50 mg/d, n = 50

Lithium 0.8-1.1

mEq/L/d, n = 121

Placebo, n = 121

Stable patients

randomized

2 weeks

8-16 weeks

76 weeks

Calabrese CR, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003; 64: 1013-1024

(GW 605)


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Describing Statistical Analysis

(Examples in Text)

  • We presented the mean of body weights

    (±SD) in kilograms of the study patients

    and the normal controls..

  • We used t-test to compare the continuous

    variables and X-square for the

    categorical variables.

  • The differences between those two groups

    were considered significant if the p-values

    were smaller than 0.05.


Writing the discussion section what does it all mean

Writing the Discussion SectionWhat does it all mean?

• To discuss the most important findings of the

study first

•To cite the literature with references in the

present tense

• To mention the study findings (described in tables,

figures or text) in the past tense

•To compare both of them constantly

• To throw away any undiscussed tables and figures

•To list limitations of the study


Writing the discussion section what does it all mean samples in text

Writing the Discussion SectionWhat does it all mean?(Samples in text)

• This study is the first to concurrently assess

electrophysiological indices of the first

episode patients. . .

(The opening paragraph)

• Our study has several limitations. . . .

(The beginning in the last paragraph)

Umbricht DSD, et al. Biological Psychiatry 2006; 59: 762-772

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

To Cite All the Sources of Information

Brought up in the Discussion Section

(Examples: Part 1 of 2)

  • As shown in Fig. 1, mirtazapine therapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease in sleep latency and a significantly greater increase in total sleep time as compared with fluoxetine therapy.

  • As compared with fluoxetine, mirtazapine was associated with a significantly greater decrease in sleep latency and a significantly greater increase in total sleep time (Fig. 1).


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

To Cite All the Sources of Information

Brought up in the Discussion Section

(Examples:Part 2 of 2)

  • Effects of mirtazepine at the 5-HT2 receptor

    have been speculated to underline its profile

    of enhancing sleep.27

  • Stahl28 in 1996 speculated that mirtazepine’s

    effects at the 5-HT2 receptor can underline its profile of enhancing sleep.

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

To List Limitations of the Study

(Examples in Text)

  • The present study has several limitations. Thus, the findings should be viewed as preliminary.

  • The limitations of the study are: (A) The sample size was small, (B) The medication assignment was not randomized, and (C) The data were collected retrospectively.

  • The weaknesses of the study are (1) small sample size in total study subjects, (2) not being randomized in medication assignment, and (3) being from chart review in data collection.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

To Conclude the Discussion with the Need

of Further Studies in the Future

(Examples in Text)

  • These issues may be further clarified in the future as refinements in symptom measures and electro-encephalographic technique unfold.

  • Apparently, further studies are imperative to clarify the issues of conflicting findings of the present study and those reported in the literature.

  • To clarify those conflicting issues, we are carrying out a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

  • To further explore those issue, a study is currently underway.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Conclusion

  • To put the interpretation into the context of the original problem

  • Not to repeat discussion points or include irrelevant materials

  • To be based on the evidence presented

Janet S. Dodd 1997


Writing the introduction section what is the problem

Writing the Introduction SectionWhat is the problem?

• To build a platform of story-telling by

introducing the research question

• To highlight the research done to date

•To identify a question that has not yet

been answered (i.e. your study).

•To state the hypotheses that you plan to

be tested


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Molecular Structure of Nucleic AcidsA Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.). This structure

has novel features which are of considerable biological interest. A structure for nucleic acid has

already been proposed by Pauling and Corey (1953). They kindly made their manuscript available

to us in advance of publication. Their model consists of three intertwined chains, with the

phosphates near the fibre axis, and the bases on the outside. In our opinion, this structure is

unsatisfactory for two reasons. (1) We believe that the material which gives the X-ray diagrams

is the salt, not the free acid. Without the acidic hydrogen atoms it is not clear what forces would

hold the structure together, especially as the negatively charged phosphates near the axis will

repel each other. (2) Some of the van der Waals distances appear to be too small.

Another three-chain structure has also been suggested by Fraser (in the press). In his model the

phosphates are on the outside and the bases on the inside, linked hydrogen bonds. This structure

as described is rather ill-defined, and for this reason we shall not comment on it.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Figure 1. This figure is purely diagramatic. The two

ribbons symbolize the two phosphate-sugar chains,

and the horizontal rods the pairs of bases holdingthe

chains together. The vertical line marks the axis.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

We wish to put forward a radically different structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid.

This structure has two helical chains each coiled around the same axis (see diagram). We have

made the usual chemical assumptions, namely, that each chain consists of phosphate diester

groups joining b-D-deoxyribofuranose residues with 3', 5' linkages. The two chains (but not

their bases) are related by a dyad perpendicular to the fibre axis. Both chains follow right-handed

helices, but owing to the dyad the sequences of the atoms in the two chains run in opposite

directions. Each chain loosely resembles Furberg's (1952) model No. 1; that is, the bases are on

the inside of the helix and the phosphates on the outside. The configuration of the sugar and the

atoms near it is close to Furbergs's standard configuration, the sugar being roughly perpendicular

to the attached base. There is a residue on each chain every 3.4A. in the z-direction. We have

assumed an angle of 36Á between adjacent residues in the same chain, so that the structure

repeats after ten residues on each chain, that is, after 34A. The distance of a phosphorous atom

from the fibre axis is 10A. As the phosphates are on the outside, cations have easy access to them.

The structure is an open one, and its water content is rather high. At lower water contents we

would expect the bases to tilt so that the structure could become more compact. The novel feature

of the structure is the manner in which the two chains are held together by the purine and

pyrimidine bases. The planes of the bases are perpendicular to the fibre axis. They are joined

together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single base from

the other chain, so that the two lie side by side with identical z-co-ordinates. One of the pair

must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine for bonding to occur. The hydrogen bonds are made

as follow: purine to position 1 to pyrimidine position 1; purine position 6 to pyrimidine position 6.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

If it is assumedthat the bases only occur in the structure in the most plausible tautomeric forms

(that is, with the keto rather than the enol configurations) it is found that only specific pairs of

bases can bond together. These pairs are: adenine (purine) with thymine (pyrimidine), and guanine

(purine) with cytosine (pyrimidine).

In other words, if an adenine forms one member of a pair, on either chain, then on these

assumptions the other member must be thymine; similarly for guanine and cytosine. The

sequence of bases on a single chain does not appear to be restricted in any way. However,

if only specific pairs of bases can be formed, it follows that if the sequence of bases on one

chain is given, then the sequence on the other chain is automatically determined.

It has been found experimentally (Chargaff; Wyatt, 1952) that the ratio of the amounts of

adinine to thymine, and the ratio of guanine to cytosine, are always very close to unity for

deoxyribose nucleic acid.

It is probably impossible to build this structure with a ribose sugar in place of deoxyribose,

as the extra oxygen atom would make too close a van der Waals contact.

The previously published X-ray data (Astbury, 1947; Wilkins and Randall, 1953) on

deoxyribose nucleic acid are insufficcient for a rigorous test of our structure. So far as we

can tell, it is roughly compatible with the experimental data, but it must be regarded as

unproved until it has been checked against more exact results. Some of these are given in

the following communications. We were not aware of the details of the results presented

there when we devised our structure, which rests mainly though not entirely on published

experimental data and stereochemical arguments.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately

suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.

Full details of the structure, including the conditions assumed in building it, together with

a set of co-ordinates for the atoms, will be published elsewhere.

We are much indebted to Dr. Jerry Donohue for constant advice and criticism, especially

on interatomic distances. We have also been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature

of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr. M.H.F. Wilkins, Dr. R.E. Franklin

and their co-workers at King's College, London. One of us (J.D.W.) has been aided by a

fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.

J.D.Watson

F.H.C. Crick

ReferencesPauling, L. and Corey, R.B. Nature, 171: 346, 1953; Proc. U.S. Nat. Acad. Sci. 39:84, 1953Furberg, S., Acta Chem. Scand. 6:634, 1952Chargaff, E., for references see Zamenhof, S., Brawerman, G., and Chargaff, E., Biochim. Et

Biophys. Acta 9:402, 1952Wyatt, G.R., J.Gen. Physiol. 36:201, 1952Astbury, W.T., Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 1, Nucleic Acid, 66 (Cambridge Univ. Press) 1947Wilkins, M.H.F., and Randall, J.T., Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 10:192, 1953


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Molecular Structure of Deoxyribose Acid

Nature 1953; 157: 737-738

We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose acid (D.N.A.) This

structure has novel features which are of considerable biologic interest.

A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Corley1.

They kindly make their manuscript available in advance of this publication. The

model consist of three interwined chains, with the phosphates near the fibre axis,

and the bases on the outside. In our opinion, this structure is unsatisfactory for two

reason. . .

It has not escaped our notice that specific pairing we have postulated immediately

a copying mechanism for genetic material.

Full details of structure, including the conditions assumed in building it, together

with it co-ordinates for the atoms, will be published elsewhere.

We are much indebted to Dr. Jerry Donahue. . .

J. D. Watson

F. H. C. Crick


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Choosing a Title of the Article

  • Be brief

  • Be concise

  • Be retrievable in Medline check


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Choosing a Title of the Article

Example in Text 1 (1/3)

Original title

“Successful treatment of severely conjugated

hyperbilirubinemia due to gram-negative sepsis

using high dose steroids”


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Choosing a Title of the Article

Example in Text 1 (2/3)

Original title (Potential areas to be trimmed)

“Successful treatment of severely conjugated

hyperbilirubinemia due to gram-negative sepsis

using high dose steroids”


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Choosing a Title of the Article

Example in Text 1 (3/3)

Original title

“Successful treatment of severely conjugated

hyperbilirubinemia due to gram-negative sepsis

using high dose steroids”

Revised titles

“The steroids treatment for a patient with sepsis-

induced conjugated hyperbilirubinemia”

or

“The steroids treatment of sepsis-induced

conjugated hyperbilirubinemia”


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Four Components of an Abstract

Written in One Non-indented Paragraph

  • Objective

  • Method

  • Results

  • Conclusion


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Abstract

Example of an Original Version in 1984

Biopsy specimens were taken from intact areas of antral mucosa in 100 consecutive consenting patients presenting

for gastroscopy. Spiral or curved bacilli were demonstrated in specimens from 58 patients. Bacilli cultured from 11 of these biopsies were gram-negative, flagellate, and microaerophilic and appeared to be a new species related

to the genus Campylobacter. The bacteria were present in almost all patients with active chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric ulcer and thus may be an important factor

in the aetiology of these diseases.

  • Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients

    • with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet. 1984 Jun 16; 1 (8390): 1311-1315.

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Abstract

Example of an expanded version in 2006

*Objective:Patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration

received a bacterial study on their stomach. Method:Biopsy specimens were taken from intact areas of antral mucosa in 100 consecutive consenting patients presenting for gastroscopy. Results: Spiral or curved bacilli were demonstrated in specimens from 58 patients. Bacilli cultured from 11 of these biopsies were gram-negative, flagellate, and microaerophilic and appeared to be a new species related to the genus Campylobacter. Conclusion: The bacteria were present in almost all patients with active chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric ulcer and thus may be an important factor in the aetiology of these diseases.

*Italicized words expanded by W.W. Shen

  • Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients

    • with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet. 1984 Jun 16; 1 (8390): 1311-1315.

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing the Objective Section

in an Abstract

  • To give the background of the study by

    paraphrasing the title of the article in the

    past tense


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing the Method Section

of an Abstract

  • To summarize the method (including

    information of patients [subjects],

    materials equipments, and tools) briefly

    in the past tense

  • To skip the detailed description of

    statistical analysis

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing the Results Section

of an Abstract

  • To report (or to paraphrase) the study findings

    described from the text or in the tables or

    figures in the past tense

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing the Conclusion Section

of an Abstract

  • To conclude with a suggestion based on this

    study findings

Winston W. Shen, M.D./5-2006


Table 1 life table for principia college and university of kansas graduates men

Table 1 Life Table for Principia College and University of Kansas Graduates, Men

University of Kansas

Principia College

Year

No.

Graduated

No. (%)

Dead

No. (%)

Live

No.

Graduated

No. (%)

Dead

No. (%)

Live

1934-1938

1939-1943

1944-1948

1949-1953

1954-1958

1959-1963

1964-1968

1969-1973

1974-1978

1979-1983

834

747

715

1549 1167

1457

2107

2983

3259

2935

244 (29)

143 (19)

94 (13)

156 (10)

67 (6)

373 (3)

58 (3)

33 (1)

34 (1)

17 (1)

590 (71)

604 (81)

621 (87)

1393 (90)

1100 (94)

1420 (97)

2049 (97)

2950 (99)

3225 (99)

2918 (99)

85

119

101

232

214

252

310

417

456

444

31 (36)

28 (24)

21 (21)

24 (10)

11 (5)

11 (4)

6 (2)

3 (1)

7 (2)

4 (1)

54 (64)

91 (76)

80 (89)

208 (90)

203 (95)

241 (96)

304 (98)

414 (99)

449 (98)

440 (99)


Table 2 life table for principia college and university of kansas graduates women

Table 2. Life Table for Principia College and University of Kansas Graduates, Women

University of Kansas

Principia College

Year

No.

Graduated

No. (%)

Live

No.

Graduated

No. (%)

Dead

No. (%)

Live

No. (%)

Dead

1934-1938

1939-1943

1944-1948

1949-1953

1954-1958

1959-1963

1964-1968

1969-1973

1974-1978

1979-1983

763

863

868

788

603

752

1203

1803

2097

2365

105 (14)

83 (10)

57 (7)

34 (4)

19 (3)

14 (2)

12 (1)

13 (1)

10 (1)

5(<1)

658 (86)

780 (90)

811 (93)

754 (96)

584 (97)

738 (98)

1191 (99)

1790 (99)

2087 (99)

2360 (>99)

96

127

200

214

217

236

336

417

532

553

15 (16)

19 (15)

14 (7)

18 (8)

12 (6)

5 (2)

4 (1)

4 (1)

2 (<1)

4 (1)

81 (84)

108 (85)

186 (93)

196 (92)

205 (94)

231 (98)

332 (99)

413 (99)

540 (>99)

549 (>99)


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Simpson WF: Comparative longevity in a college cohort of Christian Scientists. JAMA 1989; 262: 1657-1658.

Writing a Completed Abstract and Giving a Title

Illustration 1 (2/6) Abstract Updated

Objective: This is to study the life span of college-educated Christian Scientists.Method: The cumulative death rate of Christian Scientists who received an undergraduate college education at Principia College in Elsah, III, a liberal arts college for Christian Scientists, was compared with that of a control population that received an undergraduate college education in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Results: In this study, the cumulative death rate is expressed as the percentage of the graduating class known to have died as of June 1987. The study included the graduating classes from 1934 to 1983. The graduates from Principia College had a significantly higher death rate than the control population. Conclusion: The religion of Christian Scientists can shorten the believers’ life spans.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Simpson WF: The religion of Christian Scientists can be hazardous to your life.JAMA 1989; 262: 1657-1658.

Writing a Completed Abstract and Giving a Title

Illustration 1 (3/6) Abstract and Title Updated

Objective: This is to study the life span of college-educated Christian Scientists.Method: The cumulative death rate of Christian Scientists who received an undergraduate college education at Principia College in Elsah, III, a liberal arts college for Christian Scientists, was compared with that of a control population that received an undergraduate college education in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Results: In this study, the cumulative death rate is expressed as the percentage of the graduating class known to have died as of June 1987. The study included the graduating classes from 1934 to 1983. The graduates from Principia College had a significantly higher death rate than the control population. Conclusion: The religion of Christian Scientists can shorten the believers’ life spans.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing a Completed Abstract and Giving a Title

Illustration 1 (4/6) Abstract and Title Updated

Problems Indicated

Simpson WF: The religion of Christian Scientists can be hazardous to your life.JAMA 1989; 262: 1657-1658.

Objective: This is to study the life span of college-educated Christian Scientists.Method: The cumulative death rate of Christian Scientists who received an undergraduate college education at Principia College in Elsah, III, a liberal arts college for Christian Scientists, was compared with that of a control population that received an undergraduate college education in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Results: In this study, the cumulative death rate is expressed as the percentage of the graduating class known to have died as of June 1987. The study included the graduating classes from 1934 to 1983. The graduates from Principia College had a significantly higher death rate than the control population. Conclusion: The religion of Christian Scientists can shorten the believers’ life spans.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing a Completed Abstract and Giving a Title

Illustration 1 (5/6) Abstract and Title Updated

Copy-edited Version

Simpson WF: The religion of Christian Scientists can be hazardous to your life.JAMA 1989; 262: 1657-1658.

Objective: This is to study the life span of college-educated Christian Scientists.Method:I compared the cumulative death rate of Christian Scientists who received an undergraduate college education at Principia College in Elsah, III, a liberal arts college for Christian Scientists, wascompared with that of a control population that received an undergraduate college education in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Results: The study included the graduating classes from 1934 to 1983. In this study, I found that the cumulative death rate was is expressed as the percentage of the graduating class known to have died as of June 1987.,The study included the graduating classes from 1934 to 1983.and that the graduates from Principia College had a significantly higher death rate than the control population. Conclusion: The religion of Christian Scientists can shorten the believers’ life spans.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Writing a Completed Abstract and Giving a Title

Illustration 1 (6/6) Abstract and Title Updated

Final Version

Simpson WF: The religion of Christian Scientists can be hazardous to your life.JAMA 1989; 262: 1657-1658.

Objective: This is to study the life span of college-educated Christian Scientists.Method:I compared the cumulative death rate of Christian Scientists who received an undergraduate college education at Principia College in Elsah, III, a liberal arts college for Christian Scientists with that of a control population that received an undergraduate college education in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Results: The study included the graduating classes from 1934 to 1983. In this study, I found that the cumulative death rate was expressed as the percentage of the graduating class known to have died as of June 1987,and that the graduates from Principia College had a significantly higher death rate than the control population. Conclusion: The religion of Christian Scientists can shorten the believers’ life spans.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Ten Commandments to Write Better English

1. Thou shalt always use correct grammar

Original versions

˙I walked through the corridor, passed the X-

ray, resting and inspect rooms.

˙ I only could look butforbiddento disturb

the patients.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Ten Commandments to Write Better English

2. Thou shalt use simpler sentences

Original versions

  • A hospital is where I used to go when I was a child

  • because of my poor health, so I am very familiar with

  • it.I am in the opinion that the hospital is. . .


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Ten Commandments to Write Better English

7. Thou shalt use strong verbs

  • Original version

  • The doctor did an examination for me carefully.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Ten Commandments to Write Better English

8. Thou shalt use the parallel construction

Original versions

˙All of three of these characteristics, being

convincing, warm, and professional, are equally

indispensable to be a doctor.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Ten Commandments to Write Better English

9. Thou shalt avoid using empty phrases

Original versions

  • In other words, there was nothing in my stomach

    I could vomit anymore.


Writing for scientific papers lecture 10 of the course medical english

Ten Commandments to Write Better English

10. Thou shalt be specific in using words

Original versions

  • “This is your receipt and the medical documentary

    evidence.”


Exercises vi

Exercises VI

Choose the most correct answers

19. Which of the following words is NOT considered to have the Greek prefix of “de-”, meaning to negate or to take away: (A) degeneration, (B) dehydration, (C) democracy, or (D) departure.

20. In pelvis examination, a male right-handed gynecologist who is wearing a pair of gloves, places his fingers of the left hand inside patient’s vagina and puts his right fingers of the right hand on the patient’s anterior abdominal wall to palpate if the patient has a palpable mass in the adnexa. Here adnexa means: (A) the cervix and vagina, (B) the cervix and uterine body (C) ovaries and Fallopian tubes, or (D) vagina and ovaries.

21. In Botswana, the life expectancy has dropped from 64 to 34 years of age. The major reason has been due to the epidemic of (A) HIV, (B) tuberculosis, (C) malaria, or (D) cholera infection there.


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