Introduction to equilibrium
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INTRODUCTION TO EQUILIBRIUM. Kinetics Explains how chemical reactions take place and some of the factors that affect the reactions’ speed Equilibrium when the rate of opposing forces are equal Remember equilibrium with respect to vapor pressure or dissolving.

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INTRODUCTION TO EQUILIBRIUM

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Introduction to equilibrium

INTRODUCTION TO EQUILIBRIUM


Introduction to equilibrium

  • Kinetics

    • Explains how chemical reactions take place and some of the factors that affect the reactions’ speed

  • Equilibrium

    • when the rate of opposing forces are equal

    • Remember equilibrium with respect to vapor pressure or dissolving


Introduction to equilibrium

  • A few chemical reactions go to completion

    • Using up one or more reactants and then stopping

  • Many reactions behave a different way…

  • aA + bB cC + dD

  • At first A and B start to form C and D

  • But then, C and D start to react to form A and B

  • cC + dD  aA + bB

  • These two reactions proceed until the two rats of reaction become equal

  • CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM has been reached


Chemical equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium

  • Is reached when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction

  • The reaction does not stop

  • The rates are the same but the forward and reverse reactions are still happening

  • Because the rates are the same, the net change in the concentration of A, B, C and D become constant.

  • DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

  • Aa + bB↔ cC + dD


Introduction to equilibrium

  • It is important to remember that at equilibrium the concentrations of chemical species are constant, but not necessarily equal.


Law of mass action

Law of mass action

  • General description of equilibrium condition


Introduction to equilibrium

jA + kB --> nC + mD

K = [C]n[D]m[A]j[B]k

  • [A] indicates conc@

    equilibrium!!

  • K= equilibrium constant


Haber process

Haber process

  • Write law of mass action for forward rxn

  • [NH3] = 3.1 x 10-2mol/L

  • [N2] = 8.5 x 10-1mol/L

  • [H2] = 3.1 x 10-3mol/L


Now calculate

Now calculate

  • Value of K

  • value of K of reverse rxn

  • K for the following rxn

  • 1/2N2(g) + 3/2H2(g) --> NH3(g)


Some important info

Some important info

  • If rxn reversed

    • K’ = 1/K

  • Original factor multipled

    • K’’ = Kn (# that is mult)


Units

UNITS!

  • Depends on powers of various conc in law of mass action


Applications

Applications

  • K values are always the same at specific temps regardless of the amts of reactants that are mixed together initially


Ratio defined

Ratio defined

  • Although K is always the same, the equilibrium conc will not always be the same


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