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# INTRODUCTION TO EQUILIBRIUM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

INTRODUCTION TO EQUILIBRIUM. Kinetics Explains how chemical reactions take place and some of the factors that affect the reactions’ speed Equilibrium when the rate of opposing forces are equal Remember equilibrium with respect to vapor pressure or dissolving.

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### INTRODUCTION TO EQUILIBRIUM

• Kinetics

• Explains how chemical reactions take place and some of the factors that affect the reactions’ speed

• Equilibrium

• when the rate of opposing forces are equal

• Remember equilibrium with respect to vapor pressure or dissolving

• A few chemical reactions go to completion

• Using up one or more reactants and then stopping

• Many reactions behave a different way…

• aA + bB cC + dD

• At first A and B start to form C and D

• But then, C and D start to react to form A and B

• cC + dD  aA + bB

• These two reactions proceed until the two rats of reaction become equal

• CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM has been reached

• Is reached when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction

• The reaction does not stop

• The rates are the same but the forward and reverse reactions are still happening

• Because the rates are the same, the net change in the concentration of A, B, C and D become constant.

• DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

• Aa + bB↔ cC + dD

Law of mass action concentrations of chemical species are

• General description of equilibrium condition

jA concentrations of chemical species are + kB --> nC + mD

K = [C]n[D]m[A]j[B]k

Haber process concentrations of chemical species are

• Write law of mass action for forward rxn

• [NH3] = 3.1 x 10-2mol/L

• [N2] = 8.5 x 10-1mol/L

• [H2] = 3.1 x 10-3mol/L

Now calculate concentrations of chemical species are

• Value of K

• value of K of reverse rxn

• K for the following rxn

• 1/2N2(g) + 3/2H2(g) --> NH3(g)

Some important info concentrations of chemical species are

• If rxn reversed

• K’ = 1/K

• Original factor multipled

• K’’ = Kn (# that is mult)

UNITS! concentrations of chemical species are

• Depends on powers of various conc in law of mass action

Applications concentrations of chemical species are

• K values are always the same at specific temps regardless of the amts of reactants that are mixed together initially

Ratio defined concentrations of chemical species are

• Although K is always the same, the equilibrium conc will not always be the same