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The Water "Community". Tina Van Horn Environmental Public Health Specialist Monroe County Health Dept. Why is water important to the Community? . Water is a finite resource

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The water community

The Water "Community"

Tina Van Horn

Environmental Public Health Specialist

Monroe County Health Dept.


Why is water important to the community
Why is water important to the Community?

  • Water is a finite resource

  • History has demonstrated that the treatment and protection of water sources benefits the community by improving the health of the residents


History of water treatment
History of water treatment

  • Sanskrit writings demonstrated that heating and filtering of water was advocated as early as 4000 – 2000 B.C.

  • These efforts improved

    the aesthetic qualities

    of taste, odor and appearance


Water treatment in the 1700 s early 1800 s
Water treatment in the 1700’s – early 1800’s

  • Filtration became more sophisticated

  • Sand was used as a means of filtration beginning in the early 1800’s

  • Still primarily focusing on the aesthetic qualities


Water treatment in the late 1800 s
Water Treatment in the late 1800’s

  • Scientists gained a greater understanding of drinking water contaminants

  • NOT ALL CONTAMINANTS ARE VISIBLE


Water treatment in the late 1800 s1
Water Treatment in the late 1800’s

  • In 1855 cholera was proven to be a waterborne disease and was linked to a well in London that had been contaminated by sewage


Water treatment in the late 1800 s2
Water Treatment in the late 1800’s

  • In 1880 Louis Pasteur demonstrated the “Germ Theory” of disease

  • Pasteur suggested that water was a likely media for carrying germs


Water treatment in the 1900 s
Water Treatment in the 1900’s

  • Efforts continued to improve filtration

  • Sand filtration became a more common practice

  • In 1908 chlorination was was used for the first time to treat water in Jersey City, NJ



Water treatment in the 1900 s2
Water Treatment in the 1900’s

  • 1914 – First federal regulation of drinking water when the US set public health standards for bacteriological quality

  • Water quality standards continued to change and be updated through the end of the century


Water treatment in the 1900 s3
Water Treatment in the 1900’s

  • Additional sources of pollution and contamination were recognized and supported the need for even more regulation


Water treatment today
Water Treatment Today

  • In the US, Americans consume over 3 ½ billion gallons of treated water daily


Water treatment today1
Water Treatment Today

  • 98 % of treated water is chlorine treated

Other 2%

Chlorine Based 98%


Water treatment today2
Water Treatment Today

  • 90% of Americans receive their water from community water systems


Water treatment today in developing countries
Water Treatment Todayin Developing Countries

  • 1/3 of the world’s population lacks a safe water supply

  • 2.9 billion people lack adequate sanitation facilities, sewage is discharged to the surface or dumped into rivers


Water treatment today in developing countries1
Water Treatment Todayin Developing Countries

  • 25,000 people die each day from waterborne disease

  • Water-related diseases kill a child every 8 seconds


Symptoms of waterborne diseases
Symptoms of Waterborne Diseases

  • Diarrhea

  • Fever

  • Abdominal Cramps

    These symptoms are common to many other conditions, making diagnosis difficult.


Common waterborne diseases
Common Waterborne Diseases

  • Typhoid

  • Cholera

  • Dysentery-Shigella

  • Diarrhea-Cryptosporidium

  • Giardiasis

  • Diarrhea-E. Coli

  • Gastroenteritis-Viruses

Cryptosporidium

Giardiasis


Causes of waterborne disease
Causes of Waterborne Disease

  • Bacteria

  • Viruses

  • Protozoans

  • Parasitic Worms


Recent outbreaks in the u s
Recent Outbreaks in the U.S.

  • In 1993, more than 400,000 people in Milwaukee, WI became ill from Cryptosporidium


Other sources of contamination 21 st century contaminants

Municipal Sewage

Polluted runoff from stormwater in urban areas

Pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture

Animal waste from feedlots and farms

Industrial pollution

Mining waste

Hazardous waste sites

Petroleums spills and leaks

Natural contamination such as arsenic and radon

Other sources of Contamination – 21st Century Contaminants


Other uses for water pathways of exposure
Other uses for Water – Pathways of exposure

  • Recreation

  • Agriculture – Irrigation

  • Hygiene


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