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The Future of Biomedical Informatics. Barry Smith University at Buffalo http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith. Biomedical Informatics Needs Data The Problem of Local Coding Schemes NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia Is SNOMED the Solution?

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The future of biomedical informatics

The Future of Biomedical Informatics

Barry Smith

University at Buffalo

http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs Data

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs Data

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


Biomedical informatics needs data
Biomedical Informatics Needs Data

  • Four sides of the equation of translational medicine

  • Biological data + clinical data

  • Access + usability


Problems of gaining access to clinical data
Problems of gaining access to clinical data

  • privacy, security, liability

  • incentives (value of data ...)

  • costs (training ...)


Making data re usable through standards
Making data (re-)usable through standards

  • Standards provide

    • common structure and terminology

    • single data source for review (less redundant data)

  • Standards allow

    • use of common tools and techniques

    • common training

    • single validation of data


Problems with standards
Problems with standards

  • Not all standards are of equal quality

  • Once a bad standard is set in stone you are creating problems for your children and for your children’s children

  • Standards, especially bad standards, have costs


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs Data

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


Multiple kinds of data in multiple kinds of silos
Multiple kinds of data in multiple kinds of silos

Lab / pathology data

Clinical trial data, including regulatory data

Electronic Health Record data

Patient histories (free text)

Medical imaging

Microarray data

Protein chip data

Flow cytometry

Mass spectrometry data

Genotype / SNP data

Mouse data, fly data, chicken data ...


How to find your data
How to find your data?

How to find other people’s data?

How to reason with data when you find it?

How to work out what data you do not have?

How to understand the significance of your own data from 3 years ago?


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs Data

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


Sharing Research Data:Investigators submitting an NIH application seeking $500,000 or more in direct costs in any single year are expected to include a plan for data sharing or state why this is not possible (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing).


Program Announcement (PA) Number: PAR-07-425

Title:  Data Ontologies for Biomedical Research (R01)

NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, (http://neuroscienceblueprint.nih.gov/)National Cancer Institute (NCI), (http://www.cancer.gov)National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), (http://www.ncrr.nih.gov/)National Eye Institute (NEI), (http://www.nei.nih.gov/)National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), (http://http.nhlbi.nih.gov )National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), (http://www.genome.gov)National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), (http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/)National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), (http://www.nibib.nih.gov/)National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/)National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), (http://www.nida.nih.gov/)National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), (http://www.niehs.nih.gov/)National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), (http://www.nigms.nih.gov/)National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/)National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/)National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), (http://www.ninr.nih.gov)

Release/Posted Date: August 3, 2007 Letters of Intent Receipt Date(s): December 18, 2007, August 18, 2008, December 22, 2009, and August 21, 2009 for the four separate receipt dates.


Purpose. Optimal use of informatics tools and resources [data sets] depends upon explicit understandings of concepts related to the data upon which they compute. This is typically accomplished by a tool or resource adopting a formal controlled vocabulary and ontology ... that describes objects and the relationships between those objects in a formal way. 

... this FOA solicits Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/ organizations that propose to develop an ontology that will make it possible for software to understand how two or more existing data sets relate to each other. 


  • Currently, there is no convenient way to map the knowledge that is contained in one data set to that in another data set, primarily because of differences in language and structure. 

  • ... in some areas there are emerging standards.  Examples include:

  • the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS),

  • the Gene Ontology, http://www.geneontology.org/,

  • the work supported by the caBIG project (https://cabig.nci.nih.gov/workspaces/VCDE/),

  • ontologies listed at the Open Biomedical Ontology web site (http://obo.sourceforge.net/). 


This FOA will support limited awards, each of which focuses on integrating information between two (or a few very closely related) data sets in a single subject domain. The hope is that the developed vocabularies and ontologies will serve as nucleation points for other researchers in the area to build upon by adopting and extending the vocabularies and ontologies developed under this FOA. 

Applicants are expected to identify and adopt emerging standards (such as those listed above) whenever possible.  Applicants are also strongly encouraged to federate their data under appropriate infrastructures when possible.  One potential infrastructure is provided by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (http://www.nbirn.net ).  The caBIG infrastructure (http://cabig.cancer.gov ) is another well established infrastructure that researchers should consider.


NIH anticipates that once important data sets in a topical area have been unified that others in that area will adopt the emerging standard.

The nucleation points should be able to interact with each other, e.g. through the use of tools that are made freely available to the research community, such as those created by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) (http://bioontology.org/) or by caBIG


Another determinate of ontology acceptance is the degree to which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

Criteria have been developed, and are undergoing empirical validation, by the Vocabulary and Common Data Element Work Group of caBIG. Other criteria have been specified by the OBO Foundry (http://obofoundry.org/ ). 

In this FOA, the applicant should specify the criteria with which the ontology will conform and the reasons that those criteria are relevant to the data sets being integrated by the proposed ontology.   


Growth of clinical and translational research consortia
Growth of Clinical and Translational Research Consortia which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

Examples:

  • PharmGKB

  • caBIG

  • BIRN – Biomedical Informatics Research Network

    • BIRN Ontology Task Force


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs Data which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


medical records which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

SNOMED codes


The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

  • built by College of American Pathologists

  • now maintained by International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation

  • access via Virginia Tech SNOMED CT® Browser http://snomed.vetmed.vt.edu/

  • (semi-) Open Source


Snomed often includes non perspicuous terms
SNOMED often includes non-perspicuous terms which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

FullySpecifiedName:

Coordination observable (observable entity)

FullySpecifiedName:

Coordination (observable entity)


And more
and more: which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

Self-control behavior: aggression (observable entity)

Physical activity target light exercise (finding)

is a type ofphysical activity finding (finding)


Odd bunchings
odd which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction.  bunchings

European is aethnic group

6

Other European in New Zealand (ethnic group) is aethnic group

Mixed ethnic census group is aethnic group

Flathead is aethnic group


Poor modular development
Poor modular development which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

  • No clear strategy for improvement

  • Difficult to use for coding

  • A tax on world health information technology?


Snomed embraces only some of the multiple kinds of siloed data
SNOMED embraces only some of the multiple kinds of which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction.  siloed data

Lab / pathology data

Electronic Health Record data

Patient histories

Clinical trial data, including regulatory data

Medical imaging

Microarray data

Protein chip data

Flow cytometry

Mass spectrometry data

Genotype / SNP data

Mouse data, fly data, chicken data ...


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs Data which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


The gene ontology
The Gene Ontology which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

Open Source

Cross-Species

Impressive annotation resource

Impressive policies for maintenance


How to do biology across the genome
How to do Biology across the Genome? which the ontology conforms to best practices governing ontology design and construction. 

MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPISKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDV

sequence of X chromosome in baker’s yeast


MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGEMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE


what cellular component?MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

what molecular function?

what biological process?


A strategy for translational medicine
A strategy for translational medicineMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

Sjöblöm T, et al. analyzed 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers

using functional information captured by GO for given gene product types identified 189 as being mutated at significant frequency and thus as providing targets for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention.

Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74.


Go widely used

http://ontologist.comMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

GO widely used

Sjöblöm T, et al. analyzed 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers

using functional information captured by GO for given gene product types identified189 as being mutated at significant frequencies and thus as providing targets for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention.

Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74.


Benefits of go
Benefits of GOMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

  • links people to data

  • links data together

    • across species (human, mouse, yeast, fly ...)

    • across granularities (molecule, cell, organ, organism, population)

  • links medicine to biological science


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs DataMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


2003MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

a shared portal for (so far) 58 ontologies

(low regimentation)

http://obo.sourceforge.net NCBO BioPortal


Building out from the original GOMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE


Obo foundry coordinators
OBO Foundry CoordinatorsMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

Lewis

Berkeley

Ashburner

Cambridge

Mungall

Berkeley

Smith

Buffalo


The goal
The goalMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

all biological (biomedical) research data should cumulate to form a single, algorithmically processible, whole

http://obofoundry.org


Criteria

  • The ontology isMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGEopenand available to be used by all.

  • The ontology is in, or can be instantiated in, a common formal language.

  • The developers of the ontology agree in advance to collaboratewith developers of other OBO Foundry ontology where domains overlap.

CRITERIA

FOUNDRY CRITERIA


  • UPDATE: The developers of each ontology commit to its MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGEmaintenance in light of scientific advance, and to soliciting community feedback for its improvement.

  • ORTHOGONALITY: They commit to working with other Foundry members to ensure that, for any particular domain, there is community convergence on a single controlled vocabulary.

CRITERIA


ConsequencesMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

  • OBO Foundry is serving as a benchmark for improvements in discipline-focused terminology resources

  • yielding callibration of existing terminologies and data resources and alignment of different views


Mature obo foundry ontologies now undergoing reform
Mature OBO Foundry ontologies (now undergoing reform)MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

Cell Ontology (CL)

Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI)

Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA)

Gene Ontology (GO)

Phenotypic Quality Ontology (PaTO)

Relation Ontology (RO)

Sequence Ontology (SO)


Ontologies being built to satisfy foundry principles ab initio
Ontologies being built to satisfy Foundry principles MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGEab initio

Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO)

Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI)

Protein Ontology (PRO)

RNA Ontology (RnaO)

Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO)


Ontologies in planning phase
Ontologies in planning phaseMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

Biobank/Biorepository Ontology (BrO, part of OBI)

Environment Ontology (EnvO)

Immunology Ontology (ImmunO)

Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO)


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs DataMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


NCBOMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NIH Roadmap Center)

  • Stanford Medical Informatics

  • University of San Francisco Medical Center

  • Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project

  • Cambridge University Department of Genetics

  • The Mayo Clinic

  • University at Buffalo Department of Philosophy


  • Biomedical Informatics Needs DataMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

  • The Problem of Local Coding Schemes

  • NIH Policies for Data Reusability and the Growth of Clinical Research Consortia

  • Is SNOMED the Solution?

  • The Gene Ontology

  • The OBO Foundry

  • The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

  • Ontology in Buffalo


Ontology research group in coe
Ontology Research Group in CoEMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

Werner Ceusters

Louis Goldberg

Barry Smith

Robert Arp

Thomas Bittner

Maureen Donnelly

David Koepsell

Ron Rudnicki

ShahidManzoor


Ontologies in buffalo
Ontologies in BuffaloMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO)

Environment Ontology (EnvO)

Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA)

Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO)

MS Ontology

Protein Ontology (PRO)

Relation Ontology (RO)


Ontologies planned
Ontologies plannedMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGE

ICF Ontology

Food Ontology

Allergy Ontology

Vaccine Ontology

Ontology for Community-Based Medicine

Psychiatry Ontology


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