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Hurricanes Also: Tropical Cyclones , Typhoons

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Hurricanes Also: Tropical Cyclones , Typhoons. Tropical Cyclone Ingredients. Light winds  instability along I.T.C.Z. High humidity (oceans)  fuel (latent heat) Warm surface waters over a vast area (at least 26ºC / 76ºF  tropics, < 25 ºN or S)

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tropical cyclone ingredients
Tropical Cyclone Ingredients
  • Light winds  instability along I.T.C.Z.
  • High humidity (oceans)  fuel (latent heat)
  • Warm surface waters over a vast area(at least 26ºC / 76ºF  tropics, < 25 ºN or S)
  • Will not form within 5o of equator(no Coriolis)
tropical cyclone features
Tropical Cyclone Features
  • Spiral bands
  • No Fronts
  • Eye wall cloud
  • Eye
  • Size: 100-600miles, but can be larger

Death Toll: 12,000

tropical cyclone formation
Tropical Cyclone Formation
  • Easterly waves (fig. 8-24)
    • vertical perturbations within the trade winds
    • about 10% intensify and rotate
  • Tropical depression (winds < 63 kmph, 39 mph)
  • Tropical storm (63-118 kmph, 39-73 mph)
    • naming of the storm
  • Cyclone (winds > 119 kmph, 74 mph)
    • Saffir-Simpson scale (Table 8-1)
    • ranks 1 to 5 (5 is “catastrophic”)
hurricanes typhoons cyclones
Hurricanes, Typhoons & Cyclones

World Map shows locations of Hurricanes, Typhoons &

Cyclones

Names

Reflect

Locations

All are the

Same type

Of storm

paths of hurricanes north atlantic 1995
Paths of Hurricanes: North Atlantic, 1995

North Atlantic hurricanes develop 5 to 10 degrees north of

The equator & travel to the west, yet as they move farther

North they

change

directions

& move

eastward

Most do

not make

landfall

hurricane trends
Hurricane Trends?

Source: U.S. NCDC, 2009

hurricanes coastal damage death
Hurricanes:CoastalDamage/Death

Coastal damage can be extensive as high winds, high

Tides And ‘storm surges’ push ocean water far inland

Galveston, Texas

Was struck in 1900

& 6,000 were killed

In 1970 a Hurricane

Hit Bangladesh &

Killed 300,000; in

1991 200,000 died

(Note that many people in Australia, Mexico, and S.E. Asia depend on the hurricanes for live-giving moisture each year.)

tropical cyclone hazards
Tropical Cyclone Hazards
  • Storm surge – sea level increase of up to 20 feet! Worse if it coincides with high tide. Why?
    • winds / friction
    • pressure (1 cm rise per 1 mb drop in pressure)
  • rain / floodingcauses mostdamage!
  • winds
  • Embedded tornadoes

Katrina, 2005

tropical cyclone power
Tropical Cyclone Power
  • Power
    • one hour = total USA electricity for one year
    • one day = nuclear arsenals of USA and Russia
  • Highest U.S.death toll: Galveston, TX, 1900 - 20 ft. storm surge killed 6,000 (1/6 the population)
2005 atlantic hurricane season
2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season
  • Most named tropical storms in history (28); including most intense ever (Wilma: 882 millibars; 185 mph sustained winds) and most Category 5 storms (4) ever
  • New Orleans destroyed; worst U.S. hurricane damage ever. Cost estimated at: $100,000,000,000
  • Death toll: at least 2048 confirmed dead as of 4/2006; most were among poorest elderly people.
forecasting and safety
Forecasting and Safety
  • Tracking
    • satellites
    • coastal radar
  • Prediction
    • computer modeling
  • City evacuation plans
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Extra-tropical versus Tropical Cyclones

Midlatitude cyclones • Form and move outside the tropics and over both land and water• Largest diameter of all storms• No eye• Have distinct fronts

Tropical cyclones• Form over tropical oceans. Lose strength over land• Obvious eye and dramatic pressure drop (900 mb or lower) • Has no fronts. • Smaller average size, but much higher winds.

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